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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

(Mark One)

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023;

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from to

Commission File No. 001-39919

 

 

MONTAUK RENEWABLES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

85-3189583

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

5313 Campbells Run Road, Suite 200 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

15205

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (412) 747-8700

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

 

MNTK

 

The Nasdaq Capital Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large Accelerated Filer

Accelerated Filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller Reporting Company

Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price for the registrant’s common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $452,482,145.

The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock on March 8, 2024 was 143,698,263 shares.

 

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The information required by Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to the registrant’s Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in 2024 (the “Proxy Statement”), which definitive proxy statement shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.

 

 


Table of Contents

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

PART I

1

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

1

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

15

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

33

 

ITEM 1C.

CYBERSECURITY

33

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

34

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

34

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

34

 

PART II

35

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

35

ITEM 6.

RESERVED

37

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

38

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

54

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

56

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

83

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

83

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

83

ITEM 9C.

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

83

 

PART III

84

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

84

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

84

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

84

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

84

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

85

 

PART IV

86

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

86

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

88

 

 

 

 

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Glossary of Key Terms

This Annual Report on Form 10-K uses several terms of art that are specific to our industry and business. For the convenience of the reader, a glossary of such terms is provided here. Unless we otherwise indicate, or unless the context requires otherwise, any references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to:

ADG” refers to anaerobic digested gas.
CARB” refers to the California Air Resource Board.
CNG” refers to compressed natural gas.
CI” refers to carbon intensity.
CWCs” refers to cellulosic waiver credits.
D3” refers to cellulosic biofuel with a 60% GHG reduction requirement.
D5” refers to advanced biofuels with a 50% GHG reduction requirement.
EHS” refers to environment, health and safety.
EIA” refers to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.
EPA” refers to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Environmental Attributes” refer to federal, state and local government incentives in the United States, provided in the form of RINs, RECs, LCFS credits, rebates, tax credits and other incentives to end users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of renewable energy projects, that promote the use of renewable energy.
FERC” refers to the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
GHG” refers to greenhouse gases.
JSE” refers to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.
LCFS” refers to Low Carbon Fuel Standard.
LFG” refers to landfill gas.
LNG” refers to liquefied natural gas.
PPAs” refers to power purchase agreements.
“QF” refers to “qualifying facility,” as such term is defined in the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978.
RECs” refers to Renewable Energy Credits.
Renewable Electricity” refers to electricity generated from renewable sources.
RFS” refers to the EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard.
RINs” refers to Renewable Identification Numbers.
RNG” refers to renewable natural gas.
RPS” refers to Renewable Portfolio Standards.
RVOs” refers to renewable volume obligations.
WRRFs” refers to water resource recovery facilities.

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Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of U.S. federal securities laws that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical or current fact included in this report are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements refer to our current expectations and projections relating to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, strategies, future performance, and business. Forward-looking statements may include words such as “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “can have,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “strive,” “aim,” “could,” “design,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and other words and terms of similar meaning in connection with any discussion of the timing or nature of future operational performance or other events. For example, all statements we make relating to future results of operations, financial condition, expectations and plans of the Company, including expected benefits of the Pico digestion capacity increase, the Montauk Ag project in North Carolina, the Second Apex RNG Facility, the Blue Granite RNG Facility, the Bowerman RNG Facility, the delivery of biogenic carbon dioxide volumes to European Energy, the resolution of gas collection issues at the McCarty facility, the mitigation of wellfield extraction environmental factors at the Rumpke facility, and weather-related anomalies are forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those that we expect and, therefore, you should not unduly rely on such statements. The risks and uncertainties that could cause those actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements include but are not limited to:

our ability to develop and operate new renewable energy projects, including with livestock farms, and related challenges associated with new projects, such as identifying suitable locations and potential delays in acquisition financing, construction, and development;
reduction or elimination of government economic incentives to the renewable energy market;
the inability to complete strategic development opportunities;
widespread manmade, natural and other disasters (including severe weather events), health emergencies, dislocations, geopolitical instabilities or events, terrorist activities, international hostilities, government shutdowns, political elections, security breaches, cyberattacks or other extraordinary events that impact general economic conditions, financial markets and/or our business and operating results;
continued inflation could raise our operating costs or increase the construction costs of our existing or new projects;
rising interest rates could increase the borrowing costs of future indebtedness;
the potential failure to retain and attract qualified personnel of the Company or a possible increased reliance on third-party contractors as a result;
the length of development and optimization cycles for new projects, including the design and construction processes for our renewable energy projects;
dependence on third parties for the manufacture of products and services and our landfill operations;
the quantity, quality and consistency of our feedstock volumes from both landfill and livestock farm operations;
reliance on interconnections with and access to electric utility distribution and transmission facilities and gas transportation pipelines for our Renewable Natural Gas and Renewable Electricity Generation segments;
our projects not producing expected levels of output;
potential benefits associated with the combustion-based oxygen removal condensate neutralization technology;
concentration of revenues from a small number of customers and projects;
our outstanding indebtedness and restrictions under our credit facility;
our ability to extend our fuel supply agreements prior to expiration;
our ability to meet milestone requirements under our PPAs;
existing regulations and changes to regulations and policies that effect our operations;
expected benefits from the extension of the Production Tax Credit and other tax credit benefits under the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022;

-iii-


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decline in public acceptance and support of renewable energy development and projects, or our inability to appropriately address environmental, social and governance targets, goals, commitments or concerns, including climate-related disclosures;
our expectations regarding Environmental Attribute volume requirements and prices and commodity prices;
our expectations regarding the period during which we qualify as an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”);
our expectations regarding future capital expenditures, including for the maintenance of facilities;
our expectations regarding the use of net operating losses before expiration;
our expectations regarding more attractive CI scores by regulatory agencies for our livestock farm projects;
market volatility and fluctuations in commodity prices and the market prices of Environmental Attributes and the impact of any related hedging activity;
regulatory changes in federal, state and international environmental attribute programs and the need to obtain and maintain regulatory permits, approvals, and consents;
profitability of our planned livestock farm projects;
sustained demand for renewable energy;
potential liabilities from contamination and environmental conditions;
potential exposure to costs and liabilities due to extensive environmental, health and safety laws;
impacts of climate change, changing weather patterns and conditions, and natural disasters;
failure of our information technology and data security systems;
increased competition in our markets;
continuing to keep up with technology innovations;
concentrated stock ownership by a few stockholders and related control over the outcome of all matters subject to a stockholder vote and
the other risks and uncertainties detailed in the section titled “Risk Factors.”

We make many of our forward-looking statements based on our operating budgets and forecasts, which are based upon detailed assumptions. While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, we caution that it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results.

See the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this report for a more complete discussion of the risks and uncertainties mentioned above and for discussion of other risks and uncertainties we face that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements as well as others made in our other Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filings and public communications. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made by us in the context of these risks and uncertainties.

We caution you that the risks and uncertainties identified by us may not be all of the factors that are important to you. Furthermore, the forward-looking statements included in this report are made only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by law.

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Summary of Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Some of these principal risks include the following:

Our renewable energy projects may not generate expected levels of output.
The concentration in revenues from five of our projects and geographic concentration of our projects expose us to greater risks of production interruptions from severe weather or other interruptions of production or transmission.
We are not able to insure our projects against all potential risks and may become subject to higher insurance costs.
We may face intense competition and may not be able to successfully compete.
Technological innovation may render us uncompetitive or our processes obsolete.
Our use and enjoyment of real property rights for our projects may be adversely affected by the rights of lienholders and leaseholders that are superior to those of the grantors of those real property rights to our projects.
We may not be able to obtain long-term contracts for the sale of power produced by our projects on favorable terms and we may not meet certain milestones and other performance criteria under existing PPAs.
Our commercial success depends on our ability to identify, acquire, develop and operate individual renewable energy projects, as well as our ability to maintain and expand production at our current projects.
There may not be sufficient demand for renewable energy.
Our fuel supply agreements with site hosts have defined contractual periods, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully extend these agreements at their historic levels or at all.
Our PPAs, fuel-supply agreements, RNG off-take agreements and other agreements contain complex price adjustments, calculations and other terms based on gas price indices and other metrics, the interpretation of which could result in disputes with counterparties that could affect our results of operations and customer relationships.
In order to secure contracts for new projects, we typically face a long and variable development cycle that requires significant resource commitments and a long lead time before we realize revenues.
We plan to expand our business in part through developing RNG recovery projects at landfills and livestock farms, but we may not be able to identify suitable locations or complete development of new projects.
Our dairy farm project has, and any future digester project will have, different economic models and risk profiles than our landfill facilities, and we may not be able to achieve the operating results we expect from these projects.
While we currently focus on converting methane into renewable energy, in the future we may decide to expand our strategy to include other types of projects. Any future energy projects may present unforeseen challenges and result in a competitive disadvantage relative to our more established competitors.
Any future acquisitions, investments or other strategic relationships that we make could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders or harm our business, financial condition or operating results.
Our revenues may be subject to the risk of fluctuations in commodity prices and pricing volatility of Environmental Attributes.
We are exposed to the risk of failing to meet our contractual commitments to sell RINs from our production.
The failure of our hedge counterparties or significant customers to meet their obligations to us may adversely affect our financial results.
The reduction or elimination of governmental economic incentives for renewable energy projects or other related policies could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.
We may be unable obtain, modify, or maintain the regulatory permits, approvals and consents required to construct and operate our projects.
Negative attitudes toward renewable energy projects from the U.S. government, other lawmakers and regulators, and activists could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Revenue from any projects we complete may be adversely affected if there is a decline in public acceptance or support of renewable energy, or regulatory agencies, local communities, or other third parties delay, prevent, or increase the cost of constructing and operating our projects.
Existing regulations and policies, and future changes to these regulations and policies, may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers to the generation, purchase and use of renewable energy, and may adversely affect the market for credits associated with the production of renewable energy.
In order to benefit from RINs and LCFS credits, our RNG projects are required to be registered and are subject to regulatory audit.
Our business is subject to the risk of climate change and extreme or changing weather patterns.
A failure of our IT and data security infrastructure could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.
Our business could be negatively affected by security threats, including cybersecurity threats and other information technology-related disruptions.
Failure of third parties to manufacture quality products or provide reliable services in a timely manner could cause delays in developing and operating our projects, which could damage our reputation, adversely affect our partner relationships or adversely affect our growth.
Our projects rely on interconnections to distribution and transmission facilities that are owned and operated by third parties, and as a result, are exposed to interconnection and transmission facility development and curtailment risks.
We are dependent upon our relationships with Waste Management and Republic Services for the operation and maintenance of landfills on which several of our RNG and Renewable Electricity projects operate.
We have significant customer concentration, with a limited number of customers accounting for a substantial portion of our revenues.
Our fuel supply agreements with site hosts have defined contractual periods, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully extend these agreements.
Our senior credit facility contains financial and operating restrictions that may limit our business activities and our access to credit and variable rate indebtedness under the facility may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We also face risks related to our common stock, being a controlled company, being an emerging growth company, and risks generally applicable to publicly-traded companies. Shares of our common stock trade on more than one stock market and this may result in price variations.
Certain of our directors reside outside of the United States and it may be difficult to enforce judgments against them in the United States.

 

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PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references to “Montauk,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to Montauk Renewables, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

Overview

We are a renewable energy company specializing in the recovery and processing of biogas from landfills and other non-fossil fuel sources to beneficial use as a replacement to fossil fuels. We develop, own, and operate RNG projects, using proven technologies that supply renewable fuel into the transportation and electrical power sectors. We are one of the largest U.S. producers of RNG, having participated in the industry for over 30 years. We established our operating portfolio of 12 RNG and three Renewable Electricity projects through self-development, partnerships, and acquisitions that span six states.

Corporate History

On January 4, 2021, the Company, Montauk Holdings Limited (“MNK”) and Montauk Holdings USA, LLC (a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of MNK at the time, “Montauk USA”) entered into a series of transactions, including an equity exchange (the “Equity Exchange”) and a distribution collectively referred to as the “Reorganization Transactions,” that resulted in the Company owning all of the assets and entities (other than Montauk USA) previously owned by Montauk USA, and Montauk Renewables became a direct wholly-owned subsidiary of MNK. Prior to the Reorganization Transactions, MNK’s business and operations were conducted entirely through Montauk USA and its U.S. subsidiaries, and MNK held no substantial assets other than equity of Montauk USA. The Company had no significant operations or assets prior to January 4, 2021 when it engaged in the equity exchange with Montauk USA and MNK.

After completion of the Reorganization Transactions, (i) Montauk USA ceased to own any substantial assets and (ii) all entities through which MNK’s business and operations were conducted became owned, directly or indirectly, by the Company. MNK adopted a plan contemporaneously with the completion of the Reorganization Transactions that authorized the future liquidation and dissolution of MNK.

On January 15, 2021, MNK sold the membership interest of Montauk USA to a third party. On January 26, 2021, MNK distributed all of the outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock as a pro rata dividend to the holders of MNK’s ordinary shares (the “Distribution”), subject to any tax withholding obligations under applicable South African law. Each ordinary share of MNK outstanding on January 21, 2021, the record date for the Distribution, entitled the holder thereof to receive one share of the Company’s common stock.

On January 26, 2021, the Company closed the initial public offering of its common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market (the “IPO”) with the shares traded under the symbol “MNTK.” Montauk Renewables issued 2,702,500 shares at $8.50 per share and received gross proceeds of $22,971. The Company’s common stock was also secondarily listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “MKR.”

On January 26, 2021, the Company entered into a Loan Agreement and Secured Promissory Note (as amended, the “ Promissory Note”) with MNK. MNK is currently an affiliate of the Company and certain of the Company’s directors are also directors of MNK. Pursuant to the Promissory Note, the Company initially advanced a cash loan of $5,000 to MNK for MNK to pay its dividends tax liability arising from the Reorganization Transactions under the South African Income Tax Act, 1962 (Act No. 58 of 1962), as amended (the “South African Income Tax Act”). The current principal balance of the Promissory Note is $10,040 and the maturity date is December 31, 2033. The Company holds a security interest in 976,623 shares of common stock of the Company held by MNK. MNK is required to use the proceeds of any sale of the shares to repay the Promissory Note. The Promissory Note has default provisions pursuant to which MNK will deliver any unsold shares of the Company back to the Company to satisfy repayment of the Promissory Note.

MNK was delisted from the JSE on January 26, 2021. The MNK Board of Directors and Shareholders held its annual general meeting in March 2023 and voted to take MNK private.

Products Sold

The revenues Montauk receives from selling renewable energy consist of two main components. The first component is revenues from the commodity value of the natural gas or electricity generated, which we sell through a variety of term-length

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agreements. The second component is from the Environmental Attributes derived from the production of RNG and Renewable Electricity.

Our current operating projects produce either RNG or Renewable Electricity by processing biogas from landfill sites or agricultural waste from livestock farms. Biogas is produced by microbes as they break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen (during a process called anaerobic digestion). Our two current sources of commercial scale biogas are LFG or ADG. We typically secure our biogas feedstock through long-term fuel supply agreements and property lease agreements with biogas site hosts. Once we secure long-term fuel supply rights, we design, build, own, and operate facilities that convert the biogas into RNG or use the processed biogas to produce Renewable Electricity. Once collected, biogas can be processed into pipeline-quality RNG or converted into electricity. The conversion facility is typically located on landfill property away from the active fill operations where additional waste is added to the landfill site. Because we are capturing waste methane and making use of a renewable source of energy, the RNG and Renewable Electricity we produce also generates valuable Environmental Attributes which we can monetize under federal and state renewable initiatives.

RNG

The RNG we process is pipeline-quality and can be used for transportation fuel when compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG). Virtually all of the RNG we produce is used as a transportation fuel because this market generally provides the most value for our RNG production. CNG has been the most common fuel used by fleets where medium-duty trucks are close to the fueling station, such as city fleets, local delivery trucks and waste haulers. Additionally, landfill gas (LFG) and gas from livestock digesters can be processed into pipeline-quality RNG by removing the majority of the non-methane components including carbon dioxide, water, sulfur, nitrogen, and other trace compounds.

RNG, like traditional natural gas, is traded nationally. Once in an interstate pipeline, RNG can be transported to vehicle fueling stations to be used as a transportation fuel, to utilities to generate power, or for use in generating fuel cell energy anywhere within the North American pipeline system. This flexibility enables us to capture value from the renewable attributes of biogas by delivering RNG to markets and customers that place a premium on renewable energy. Although RNG has the same chemical composition as natural gas from fossil sources, it has unique Environmental Attributes assigned to it through government incentive programs due to its origin from low-carbon, renewable sources, which we also monetize.

RNG is priced in-line with the wholesale natural gas market, based on Henry Hub pricing, with regional variation according to demand. We sell the RNG produced from our projects under a variety of short-term and medium-term agreements to counterparties, with tenures generally varying from three years to five years. Our contracts with counterparties are typically structured to be based on varying natural gas price indices for the RNG produced. We also share a portion of our Environmental Attributes with certain pathway providers as consideration for the counterparty using our RNG as a transportation fuel.

Renewable Electricity

Renewable electricity is generated using gas-fueled engines or turbine-driven electrical generators, which are designed to operate efficiently on medium-Btu gas. As such, electricity generation typically involves producing medium-Btu gas, which is then pumped into a generating facility. Electricity is a commodity that trades and is priced on a regional basis in and among regional control areas. Pricing for commodity-sold electricity can be based on day-ahead prices for scheduled deliveries or hourly, real-time prices for unscheduled deliveries. Prices vary across the country based on weather, load patterns and local power and transmission restrictions. The Renewable Electricity produced at our biogas-to-electricity projects is sold under long-term contracts to creditworthy counterparties, typically under a fixed price with escalators. The terms of these contracts range up to 20 years, excluding renewal periods, with a weighted average remaining tenure of 14 years, based on 2023 electricity production.

Environmental Attributes

When used as a transportation fuel or to produce electricity, RNG can generate additional revenue streams through the generation and sale of Environmental Attributes under various programs, including the national renewable fuels standard and state-level California LCFS. The Environmental Attributes that we generate and sell are composed of RINs and LCFS credits, which are generated from the conversion of biogas to RNG that is used as a transportation fuel, as well as RECs generated from the conversion of biogas to Renewable Electricity. In addition to revenues generated from our product sales, we also generate revenues by providing various value-added services to certain of our biogas site partners. In 2023 and 2022, our projects generated approximately 7.7% and 8.1%, respectively, of all D3 RINs in the United States. During 2021, we entered into an agreement to sell a portion of our production as a renewable component of refinery fuel exports into the European Union’s Renewable Energy Directive from certain RNG production facilities that have achieved International Sustainability & Carbon Certification registration. This diversification strategy accounted for approximately 1.4% of the reduction in generation of D3 RINs in 2023. We continue to sell a portion of our production as a renewable component of refinery fuel exports.

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We seek to mitigate our exposure to commodity and Environmental Attribute pricing volatility. Through contractual arrangements with our site hosts and counterparties, we typically share pricing and production risks while retaining our ability to benefit from potential upside. A portion of the RNG volume we produce is sold under bundled fixed-price arrangements for the RNG and Environmental Attributes, some of which include a sharing arrangement where we benefit from prices above certain thresholds. For our remaining RNG projects, our partners may receive a cash payment instead of in-kind sharing arrangements where our partners receive the Environmental Attributes, thereby sharing in Environmental Attribute pricing risk.

On the electricity side of our business, all of our products and related Environmental Attributes are sold under fixed-price contracts with escalators, limiting our pricing risk. Finally, our contracts with site hosts often require payments to our site hosts in the form of royalties based on realized revenues, direct development contributions, or, in some select cases, based on production volumes.

D3 RINs

RNG has the same chemical composition as natural gas from fossil sources, but has unique Environmental Attributes assigned to it due to its origin from organic sources. These attributes qualify RNG as a renewable fuel under the federal RFS program, established pursuant to the EPACT 2005 and EISA, allowing RNG to generate renewable fuel credits called RINs when the RNG is used as a transportation fuel.

RINs are saleable regulatory credits that represent a quantity of qualifying fuel and are used by refiners and importers to evidence compliance with their RFS obligations. Given that the RFS is a national program, the price of a RIN is the same anywhere in the United States. The RFS program originally contemplated 1.75 billion gallons of fuel from cellulosic biofuels by 2014, the use of which would be tracked through D3 RINs. However, cellulosic biofuel production grew slower than expected and prompted the EPA to expand the definition of biofuels that could qualify for D3 RINs to include fuels from cellulosic biogas, including biogas from landfills, livestock farms, and WRRFs. This significantly increased the quantity of D3 RINs produced, with production increasing to approximately 33 million net RINs in 2014 and approximately 704 million net RINs in 2023. In addition, given the historic shortage in supply of D3 RINs to meet blending requirements, the EPA allows obligated refiners to satisfy RFS compliance obligations for D3 RINs by either purchasing CWC plus D5 RINs or by purchasing D3 RINs. CWC prices were set annually and were typically published by the EPA each November. Historically, the value of a D3 RIN is therefore a derivative of the market price for D5 RINs and CWCs, which in turn, are inversely linked to the wholesale price of gasoline. On July 12, 2023, the EPA issued final rules in the Federal Register which indicated that it will not be utilizing its cellulosic waiver authority to reduce cellulosic biofuel volume for 2023-2025, thus CWCs will not be available unless actual production is lower than the RVO. The EPA has indicated it will not utilize the CWC.

We have been active in the RFS program since 2014 and expect to remain a significant contributor to the overall generation of RINs from RNG. We monetize our portion of the RINs, directly, at auction or through third-party agents or marketers.

CA LCFS

CA LCFS credits are environmental credits generated in California in order to stimulate the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels. This program encourages the production of low-carbon fuels by setting annual CI standards, which are intended to reduce GHG emissions from the state’s transportation sector. One of the key aspects of the program is that it encourages the use of low-carbon transportation fuel, such as CNG, in vehicles instead of gasoline. This program further encourages use of renewable fuels in vehicles over CNG from fossil fuels.

The value of an CA LCFS credit varies according to the CI value of the fuel source as determined by CARB. Fuels that have a lower CI score benefit from a higher percentage of a CA LCFS credit. RNG from LFG and livestock digester biogas that are used as a transportation fuel both qualify for CA LCFS credits. The number of CA LCFS credits for RNG from livestock digesters is significantly higher than the number of CA LCFS credits for RNG from landfills, due to the relative CI scores of the two fuels. Fuel that is eligible for RINs can also receive CA LCFS credits. As a result, CA LCFS credits represent a revenue stream incremental to the value RNG producers receive for RINs. For livestock digester RNG projects, CA LCFS credits are a substantial revenue driver. We have seven projects which are currently approved and eligible to earn CA LCFS credits, and we expect the revenue generated by CA LCFS credits to increase as we continue to develop and bring additional livestock digester projects online over the next few years.

Several states in the United States also have or are considering adopting this model. Oregon’s Clean Fuels Program, enacted in 2009 and implemented in 2016, operates using a credit system similar to the CA LCFS program. Washington’s Clean Fuel Standard was passed in 2021 and implemented in 2023 utilizing a similar credit system as Oregon and California. New Mexico’s Clean Fuel Standard was passed in 2024 with plans to finalize implementation in 2026. Similar to RINs, LCFS credits can be sold separately from the RNG fuel sold, allowing us to monetize LCFS credits for fuel produced and purchased outside of states that have LCFS programs.

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RECs

The primary Environmental Attributes derived from the production of electricity from renewable resources are RECs, which translate into additional revenues for units of Renewable Electricity produced. Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource in all 37 states that encourage or mandate the use of renewable energy. Thirty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have RPS that require utilities to supply a percentage of power from renewable resources, and seven states have a Renewable Portfolio Goal that is similar to RPS, but it is an objective or goal and not a requirement. Many states allow utilities to comply with RPS through tradable RECs, which provide an additional revenue stream to RNG projects that produce electricity from biogas.

The value of a REC is dependent on each state’s renewable energy requirements as mandated by its RPS. REC values are higher in states which require a percentage of total electricity to come from renewable resources. In states with no renewable energy requirements, RECs can have no value at all. In some markets, we have entered into PPAs under which we sell RECs bundled with the power being sold at a combined price. This occurs where the utility off-take counterparty offers a combined rate for the renewable energy it needs to satisfy RPS or other business requirements that is the best combined price for one of our projects.

Strategic Overview

Our business strategy focuses on the following three areas that we believe present the greatest growth opportunities for the Company at this time.

Continued Expansion into Agricultural Feedstocks for RNG Production
Optimize Existing Assets and Project Portfolio and Opportunistically Develop New Projects
Valued-added Service Offerings

Continued Expansion into Agricultural Feedstocks for RNG Production

As part of our long-term strategy, we are focused on diversifying our project portfolio beyond LFG through expansion into additional methane producing assets, while opportunistically adding third-party developed technology capabilities to boost financial performance and our overall cost competitiveness. We are commercially operating our first agricultural waste project (dairy manure), actively pursuing new fuel supply opportunities in WRRFs, and looking at long-term organic waste and sludge opportunities for the generation of biogas.

We view dairy farms and other forms of organic agricultural waste as a significant opportunity for us to expand our RNG business, as processing biogas from dairy farms and from other forms of organic agricultural waste requires similar expertise and capabilities as processing biogas from landfills. Many of the existing biogas processing in these industries is for electricity production, which creates additional opportunities for acquisition and conversion to higher-value RNG facilities.

Pico Facility

We undertook an agricultural project when we closed on the acquisition of Pico, the anaerobic digester and two Jenbacher engines at the Bettencourt dairy farm in Jerome, Idaho in September 2018. The project sources manure from a dairy farm with up to approximately 18,500 milking cows. While Pico was initially a Renewable Electricity site, we brought an RNG facility at that location online in 2020. The facility sells transportation fuel into the California transportation market. The collection of the fuel supply is potentially easier at dairy farms than at landfills due to higher quality, more uniform feedstock, and potentially less volatility in inlet gas and biogas collection in a more controlled environment. During the second quarter of 2021, we amended our Pico feedstock agreement (“Pico Feedstock Amendment”). The amendment increased the amount of feedstock supplied to the facility for processing over a four-year period.

As part of our overall capacity expansion at the Pico facility, in 2021 and 2022, we undertook significant efforts to improve the performance of the existing digestion process at our Pico facility. We temporarily idled RNG production at this facility in order to clean out settled solids in the digester, replace the cover of the digester, and make various other efficiency improvements. The Pico facility resumed operations during the first quarter of 2022. The dairy began delivering the first and second increases in feedstock during the third quarter of 2022 and we have made two payments to the dairy as required in the Pico Feedstock Amendment. The improved efficiencies of our existing digestion process and the water management improvements have enabled us to process the increased feedstock volumes. We completed the design of the digestion capacity expansion project in the third quarter of 2022, commenced construction of the digestion expansion, and expect the project to be completed in 2024. We currently expect the dairy to begin delivering the final increase in feedstock volumes during 2025.

The improvement project impacted the timeline for modeling Pico’s initial CI Score pathway model and subsequent auditing approval by CARB. During the fourth quarter of 2022, we learned through CARB that our dairy project CI Score Pathway would be

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subject to a public comment period. Due to this public comment period, we received approval of our score during the first quarter of 2023. This public comment period followed the completion of the validation of the CI Score, which CARB finalized in the first quarter of 2023. We began releasing gas from storage during the third quarter of 2022 and recognized revenues from a portion of the RINs generated and completed storage release during the third quarter of 2022. We committed RINs and recognized revenues from RINs generated in the fourth quarter of 2022.

Montauk Ag Renewables

In the second quarter of 2021, through our wholly owned subsidiary, Montauk Ag Renewables, we completed the 2021 asset purchase related to developing technology to recover residual natural resources from waste streams of modern agriculture and to refine and recycle such waste products through proprietary and other processes to produce high quality renewable natural gas, bio-oil and biochar (the “Montauk Ag Renewables Acquisition”). The assets acquired include real property, intellectual property, mobile equipment, and other equipment related to operating the business and real property of an approximate 9.35 acre parcel in Magnolia, North Carolina. We subsequently closed on a transaction to acquire approximately 146 acres and an approximately 500,000 square foot existing structure in Turkey, North Carolina where we plan to consolidate and expand the production processes purchased in the Montauk Ag Renewables Acquisition.

We continue to work with our engineer of record through the optimization of improvements to the now patented reactor technology. We have relocated certain assets from Magnolia, NC to Turkey, NC and have recorded an impairment of approximately $1,393 in 2022 related to assets which will no longer be used in the production process. We continue our capital development improvements and have not yet reached commercial operations at the Turkey location. In July 2023, we signed a REC agreement with Duke Energy (“Duke”) under which Duke will purchase the swine waste RECs from the conversion of swine waste feedstock into renewable energy as required under the North Carolina Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard. Once fully commissioned, we expect the facility to sell up to an estimated 47 RECs annually.

While these project developments continue, we continue to engage with regulatory agencies in North Carolina related to the resulting power generation derived from swine waste to confirm its eligibility for Renewable Energy Credits under North Carolina’s Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards in anticipation of commercial production. The Turkey location was approved to participate in the Piedmont Natural Gas Renewable Gas Pilot Program which is a step towards obtaining the New Renewable Energy Facility (“NREF”) designation under the North Carolina Utilities Commission. In January 2024, we received notification from the North Carolina Utilities Commission that the Turkey, NC location was approved for an NREF and Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity. In March 2024, we submitted an amendment to our NREF application for which we expect a decision on the NREF designation during 2024. Obtaining this designation could have an impact on the timing of utility infrastructure at the location. We signed a receipt interconnection agreement with Piedmont Natural Gas for the Turkey, NC location. This agreement is structured to coincide with the development timeline at the Turkey, NC location. Our Turkey, NC location has been accepted into the Piedmont Natural Gas Renewable Gas Pilot Program.

We are at the beginning stages of developing the opportunities associated with Montauk Ag Renewables and can give no assurances that our plans related to this acquisition will meet our expectations. We continue to design and plan for the development of the facility to be used for commercial production. We do not currently expect commercial production to commence until 2025 based on the current development timeline. We intend to contract with additional farms to secure feedstock sources, as we commission commercial production and increase our production capabilities, which we anticipate will secure additional feedstock for future production processes.

Other Opportunities

Other industries that present opportunities of scale for biogas conversion include swine farms and WRRFs. Like dairy farms, biogas production from swine farms is a nascent biogas industry, with less than 1% of swine farms with biogas processing capabilities. Additionally, roughly 23% of WRRFs have biogas processing facilities, however, most process biogas for electricity production creating additional opportunities for acquisition and conversion to RNG facilities. As with LFG and dairy farms, biogas from both swine farms and WRRFs qualify for D3 RINs under the RFS program. We believe our demonstrated versatility to operate processing facilities using multiple fuel supply sources will give us a competitive advantage in these markets relative to other new entrants who have only demonstrated capabilities with one fuel supply source. The drive toward voluntary and most likely regulatory-required organic waste diversion from landfills is of particular interest as we leverage our current experience base. As our biogas processing technology continues to improve and the required energy intensity of the RNG and Renewable Electricity production process is reduced, we expect that we will be able to enter new markets for our products.

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Optimize Existing Assets and Project Portfolio and Opportunistically Develop New Projects

Expanding Operations at Existing Project Sites. We monitor biogas supply availability across our portfolio and seek to maximize production at existing projects by expanding operations when economically feasible. Most of our landfill locations continue to accept waste deliveries and the available LFG at these sites is expected to increase over time, which we expect to support expanded production. In 2023, this has allowed us to maintain average production availability of approximately 90% at our RNG projects and 96% at our Renewable Electricity projects.

We treat our existing assets as an integrated portfolio rather than a collection of individual projects. This allows us to utilize any new business practices or technologies across our entire project portfolio quickly, including advances with respect to troubleshooting, optimization, cost savings, and host site interaction. Our integrated, pro-active and value-add approach helps us maintain strong relationships with our partners, which we seek to leverage to optimize the performance of our existing projects.

In addition to monitoring biogas supply, we are incorporating similar collection and processing used for our biogas supply to our byproduct streams to capture, clean, and liquefy biogenic carbon dioxide at our existing projects. In February 2024, we announced our first agreement for certain of our Texas facilities related to biogenic carbon dioxide collection.

We also experience organic growth in production at our existing projects as a result of increases in biogas supply at our projects and on-going optimization initiatives. We size our projects to account for this increase in the biogas supply curve over time. For example, at many of our newer projects, such as Apex and Galveston, we expect gradual increases in production as those landfill sites continue to grow. Additionally, many of our capacity expansion efforts to date, such as those at McCarty, Rumpke, and Pico, have helped to optimize our project capacity to take advantage of excess biogas at older landfills that are still open and growing. Not only have our projects achieved an initial increase in production following the capacity expansion project, but we also expect to see continued gradual increases in production over time.

Converting Existing Renewable Electricity Projects to RNG. We periodically evaluate opportunities to convert existing projects from electricity generation to RNG production. These opportunities tend to be attractive for our merchant electricity projects given the favorable economics for RNG plus RIN sales relative to merchant electricity rates plus REC sales. To date, we have converted two projects from LFG-to-electricity to LFG-to-RNG and a third project from ADG-to-electricity to ADG-to-RNG. We will continue to explore the feasibility of other opportunities across our remaining Renewable Electricity portfolio.

Opportunistic Development of New RNG Projects. We apply a financially disciplined model toward new project development that considers the relative risk of a given project and associated feedstock costs, offtake contracts and any other related Environmental Attributes that can be monetized. We are currently developing two project expansion opportunities at existing project sites and one project at a new project site. We regularly analyze potential new projects that are at various stages of negotiation, engineering design and financial review. The potential projects typically include a mix of new project sites and strategic acquisitions. Currently, no new potential projects are subject to definitive agreements and each potential opportunity is subject to competitive market conditions.

Developing LFG to Renewable Electricity Projects. We continue to analyze for future development to include sites from which we would generate renewable electricity. This evaluation of potential new renewable electricity projects would be reviewed with the same financially disciplined model we use to evaluate new LFG-to-RNG projects.

The RNG industry remains highly fragmented. We believe continued industry fragmentation presents an opportunity for further industry consolidation. We are well-positioned to take advantage of this consolidation opportunity because of our scale, operational and managerial capabilities, and execution track record in integrating acquisitions. Over the last ten years, we have acquired 13 projects and members of our current management team have led all of those acquisitions. We expect that as we continue to scale up our business, our increased size, capabilities and access to capital will provide us with increased strategic acquisition opportunities.

Valued-Added Service Offerings

Over our three decades of experience, we have developed the full range of RNG project related capabilities from engineering, construction, management and operations, through EHS oversight and Environmental Attributes management. By vertically integrating across RNG services, we are able to reduce development and operations costs, optimize efficiencies and improve operations. Our full suite of capabilities allows us to serve a multi-project partner for certain project hosts across multiple transactions, including through strategic transactions. To that end, we actively identify and evaluate opportunities to acquire entities that will further our vertically-integrated services.

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Our Current Operating Portfolio

We currently own and operate 15 projects, 12 of which are RNG projects and three of which are Renewable Electricity projects. We are currently in the process of expanding two RNG project from LFG. We are also working on other projects which will repurpose equipment from existing biogas facilities for use at new project sites. The below graphic does not include the Montauk Ag project, which is currently under development.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/d2217836b83c00f07d2c12dd209f7957-img198673427_0.jpg 

 

 

Renewable Natural Gas

 

Site

COD(1)

Capacity
(MMBtu/
day) (2)

Source

 

Rumpke

Cincinnati, OH

1986

7,271

Landfill

 

Atascocita

Humble, TX

2002*/ 2018

5,570

Landfill

 

McCarty

Houston, TX

1986

4,415

Landfill

 

Apex

Amsterdam, OH

2018

2,673

Landfill

 

Monroeville

Monroeville, PA

2004

2,372

Landfill

 

Valley

Harrison City, PA

2004

2,372

Landfill

 

Galveston

Galveston, TX

2019

1,857

Landfill

 

Renewable Electricity Generation

 

Raeger

Johnston, PA

2006

1,857

Landfill

Site

COD (1)

Capacity
(MW)

Source

 

Shade

Cairnbrook, PA

2007

1,857

Landfill (3)

Bowerman

Irvine, CA

2016

23.6

Landfill

 

Coastal

Plains Alvin, TX

2020

1,775

Landfill

Security

Houston, TX (4)

2003

3.4

Landfill

 

Southern

Davidsville, PA

2007

928

Landfill

AEL

Sand Spring, OK

2013

3.2

Landfill

 

Pico

Jerome, ID

2020

903

Livestock
(Dairy)

Total Capacity (MW)

30.2

 

 

Total Capacity (MW)

33,850

 

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/d2217836b83c00f07d2c12dd209f7957-img198673427_1.jpg

= Renewable Natural Gas Project

https://cdn.kscope.io/d2217836b83c00f07d2c12dd209f7957-img198673427_2.jpg

= Renewable Electricity Project

(1)
“COD” refers to the commercial operation date of each site.
(2)
This is equivalent to the project’s design capacity and assumes inlet methane content of 56% for all sites other than Pico, which assumes inlet methane content of 62%, and process efficiency of 91%.
(3)
All of our landfill sites are accepting waste except our Shade site. Our Shade site is closed to accepting new waste, but is currently expected to continue to generate a commercial level of RNG for an additional ten years. Our operating RNG projects have an average expected remaining useful life of approximately 17 years.
(4)
We reached an agreement with the site host to sell the gas rights ahead of the fuel supply expiration of one of our existing REG operating facilities effective October 1, 2024. The sale comes as the power purchase agreement was set to expire in late 2024.

We have a long history of operating our projects with partners, with our oldest relationship going back nearly 50 years. On average, we have had an approximate 20-year history with our current project site owners. As of December 31, 2023, our operating RNG projects have an average expected remaining useful life of approximately 17 years and our operating Renewable Electricity projects have an average expected remaining useful life of approximately 26 years, including renewal periods.

Approximately 69% of our 2023 RNG production has been monetized under fuel supply agreements with expiration dates more than 15 years from December 31, 2023. Approximately 90% of our 2023 Renewable Electricity production has been monetized under fuel supply agreements with expiration dates more than 15 years from December 31, 2023. Concurrent with our fuel supply agreements, we typically enter into property leases with our project hosts, which govern access rights, permitted activities, easements and other property rights. We own all equipment and facilities on each leased property, other than equipment provided by utility companies providing services on-site. Lease termination typically requires the restoration of the leased area to its original condition. We have successfully ended leases on six of our former facilities.

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Our RNG projects currently utilize three of the four proven commercial technologies available to process raw biogas into RNG, including: pressure swing absorption (“PSA”), Membrane Filtration and solvent scrubbing. We are capable of working with virtually all available biogas processing technologies at our sites. We attend industry conferences and maintain an ongoing dialogue with key equipment providers to ensure we stay informed of the latest technology that could be deployed at our current and future facilities.

Stated capacity reflects the design capacity of each facility. Several of our projects have reserve capacity when comparing design capacity to available biogas feedstock. Several previous acquisitions are gas limited and therefore do not operate at their design capacity. Our larger projects have expansions planned or are being evaluated for future expansions dependent on the availability of excess biogas feedstock.

RNG Projects

We currently own and operate 12 RNG projects across four states: Ohio (two), Pennsylvania (five), Texas (four) and Idaho (one) which, in the aggregate, have a total design capacity of approximately 33,850 MMBtu/day.

RNG Projects

 

Site

 

Location

 

Capacity*

Rumpke

 

Cincinnati, OH

 

7,271 MMBtu/day

Atascocita

 

Humble, TX

 

5,570 MMBtu/day

McCarty

 

Houston, TX

 

4,415 MMBtu/day

Apex

 

Amsterdam, OH

 

2,673 MMBtu/day

Monroeville

 

Monroeville, PA

 

2,372 MMBtu/day

Valley

 

Harrison City, PA

 

2,372 MMBtu/day

Galveston

 

Galveston, TX

 

1,857 MMBtu/day

Raeger Mountain

 

Johnstown, PA

 

1,857 MMBtu/day

Shade

 

Cairnbrook, PA

 

1,857 MMBtu/day

Coastal Plains

 

Alvin, TX

 

1,775 MMBtu/day

Southern

 

Davidsville, PA

 

928 MMBtu/day

Pico

 

Jerome, ID

 

903 MMBtu/day

Total

 

33,850 MMBtu/day

* Assumes inlet methane content of 56% for all sites other than Pico, which assumes inlet methane content of 62%, and process efficiency of 91%.

Renewable Electricity Projects

We currently own and operate the following three Renewable Electricity projects in California, Oklahoma, and Texas which, in the aggregate, have a total design capacity of approximately 30.2 MW. Our Renewable Electricity projects utilize reciprocating engine generator sets to generate electricity at landfills. This does not include the Montauk Ag Renewables project in North Carolina, which is not yet operational.

Renewable Electricity Projects

 

Site

 

Location

 

Capacity(1)

Bowerman Power

 

Irvine, CA

 

23.6 MW

Security

 

Cleveland, TX

 

3.4 MW

Tulsa/AEL (3)

 

Sand Springs, OK

 

3.2 MW

Pico(2)

 

Jerome, ID

 

2.3 MW

 

Total

 

32.5 MW

(1)
Assumes inlet methane content of 56% and process efficiency of 91%,
(2)
Beginning in October 2020, we began reporting the result of operations of Pico within RNG, but Pico continues to generate Renewable Electricity.
(3)
We reached an agreement with the site host to sell the gas rights ahead of the fuel supply expiration of one of our existing REG operating facilities effective October 1, 2024. The sale comes as the power purchase agreement was set to expire in late 2024.

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A critical component of our business is our ability to negotiate and maintain long-term fuel supply agreements at our project sites. We have developed strong working relationships with our landfill site owners, including ten of 14 operating projects and other potential development projects each with Waste Management and Republic Services, the two largest waste companies in the United States, and actively seek to strategically extend our tenure at our project sites.

Our projects provide our landfill and agricultural partners a solution to monetize biogas from their sites, support their regulatory compliance and provide them with environmental services. We have had working relationships with Republic Services since 1986 and with Waste Management since 2004 and we enable monetization of their biogas while maintaining regulatory compliance. We seek to differentiate ourselves from our competitors through our extensive experience across a variety of commercialized beneficial uses of processed biogas, including pipeline-quality natural gas, power generation and boiler fuel gas products. To date, we have not had any fuel supply agreement terminated by any site partner once we have established a facility on the site, which we believe serves as evidence of our operational expertise, reliability and consistent value delivered to our site partners. The table below is a summary of the expiration periods of those agreements. We are consistently reviewing and pursuing extensions for all of our fuel supply agreements well before their expirations and for future agreements, we continue to target contracts with expirations of 20 years from commencement of operation with options for extension.

Fuel Supply Agreement Summary

RNG Projects

 

Fuel Supply Agreement Expiration Dates

 

Current Sites as of December 31, 2023

 

 

% of 2023 Total RNG Production

 

Within 0-5 years

 

 

3

 

 

 

6.8

%

Between 6-15 years

 

 

2

 

 

 

24.4

%

Greater than 15 years

 

 

7

 

 

 

68.8

%

 

Renewable Electricity Projects

 

Fuel Supply Agreement Expiration Dates

 

Current Sites as
of December 31,
2023

 

 

% of 2023 Total
Renewable
Electricity
Production

 

Within 0-5 years

 

 

1

 

 

 

7.8

%

Between 6-15 years

 

 

0

 

 

 

0

%

Greater than 15 years(1)

 

 

2

 

 

 

88.9

%

(1)
Our Pico project continues to generate both RNG and Renewable Electricity and is accounted for above in the RNG Projects summary.

Customers

Our customers for RNG and RINs typically include large, long-term owner-operators of landfills and livestock farms, local utilities, and large refiners in the natural gas and refining sectors. Royalty structures included in our agreements, as well as the large size of our counterparties, limit their credit risk. Valero, GE Warren, and HF Sinclair represented approximately 31.6%, 16.8% and 16.8%, respectively, of our operating revenues in 2023 from the sale of Environmental Attributes. We sell RINs to numerous RIN off-take parties and our largest RIN off-taker as a percentage of revenue can vary year to year given the short-term nature of these contracts. In addition to revenues from sales of RNG and RINs, we also share a portion of our Environmental Attributes with our pathway providers as in-kind consideration for the counterparty using our RNG as a transportation fuel.

Our customers for electricity typically include investor-owned and municipal electricity utilities. For the sale of Renewable Electricity and RECs, the City of Anaheim represented approximately 9.5% of our operating revenues in 2023. These sales occurred under a PPA between us and the City of Anaheim, in which electricity and RECs are sold at fixed prices. In 2023, we converted 100% of the monetization of our Renewable Electricity production and Environmental Attributes under fixed-price agreements. For our electricity sales, all of our customers with whom we have off-take agreements are investment-grade entities with low credit risk.

No other single customer represented more than 10% of our total 2023 operating revenues.

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Suppliers and Equipment Vendors

The major technologies used by our projects for gas processing include solvent scrubbing PSA and membrane separation. For electricity generation, we use reciprocating engines. This affords Montauk experience with substantially all major vendors in the sector, and technical expertise in numerous technologies.

We source equipment from a variety of major suppliers with specialties in each technology. We enter into written ordinary-course agreements with suppliers to obtain industry-standard equipment for use in our operations. The contracts generally do not include any intellectual property rights other than for the intended use of the equipment. Membrane separation equipment is primarily provided by UOP and Air Liquide. PSA equipment is primarily provided by Xebec, Guild, Air Products, and BioFerm. Solvent scrubbing is primarily provided by Selexol. RNG ancillary constituent removal is done using equipment provided by Iron Sponge, MV Technologies, Thiopaq, Guild Associates, and PSB Industries. Electricity generation equipment is provided by Solar Turbines, Caterpillar, and Jenbacher.

We have made substantial investments in a centralized Enterprise Resource Planning (“ERP”) system (Microsoft Dynamics) to better integrate operations across our projects. This system centralizes maintenance operations across all of our projects. Our proactive approach to maintenance, corrective maintenance, root cause analysis, failure reporting, project management, and budgeting are all completed using the ERP system. We are currently in the process of migrating our ERP to the latest version of the Microsoft Dynamics system. We anticipate having this system migration completed in 2024.

Competition

There are several other companies operating in the renewable energy and waste-to-energy space, ranging from other project developers to service or equipment providers.

Our primary competition is from other companies or solutions for access to biogas from waste. Evolving consumer preferences, regulatory conditions, ongoing waste industry trends, and project economics have a strong effect on the competitive landscape and our relative ability to continue to generate revenues and cash flows. We believe that our status as one of the largest operators of LFG-to-RNG projects, our 30-year track record of operating and developing projects, and our deep relationships with some of the largest landfill owners and dairy farms in the country position us very well to continue to operate and grow our portfolio, and respond to competitive pressures. We have demonstrated a track record of strategic flexibility across our 30-year history which has allowed us to pivot towards projects and markets that we believe deliver optimal returns and stockholder value in response to changes in market, regulatory and competitive pressures.

The biogas market is highly fragmented. We believe our size relative to many other LFG companies and our capital structure puts us in a strong position to compete for new project development opportunities or acquisitions of existing projects. However, competition for such opportunities, including the prices being offered for fuel supply, will impact the expected profitability of projects to us, and may make projects unsuitable to pursue. Likewise, prices being offered by our competitors for fuel supply may increase the royalty rates that we pay under our fuel supply agreements when such agreements expire and need to be renewed or when expansion opportunities present themselves at the landfills where our projects currently operate. It is also possible that more landfill owners may seek to install their own LFG projects on their sites, which would reduce the number of opportunities for us to develop new projects. Our overall size, reputation, access to capital, experience and decades of proven execution on LFG project development and operation leave us well-positioned to compete with other companies in our industry.

We are aware of several competitors in the United States that have a similar business model to our own, including Clean Energy Fuels Corp, Opal Fuels, U.S. Gain, Brightmark, Gevo Inc., and AMP Energy, as well as companies with biogas-to-energy facilities as a segment or subsidiary of their operations, including DTE, Ameresco, and British Petroleum (bp, acquired Archaea Energy in 2022). In addition, certain landfill operators, such as Waste Management, have also chosen to selectively pursue biogas conversion projects at their sites. Finally, Republic has entered into a joint venture with bp (formerly through Archaea Energy) to develop certain of its LFG locations.

Government Regulation

Our projects are subject to a range of federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, depending on the nature and configuration of the project, as well as where the project is located. We have established processes and procedures to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our operations, and have partnered with external experts, as needed, to meet applicable compliance requirements. As a renewable energy company, we are committed to being good stewards of the environment and to positively impacting the communities in which we operate.

All of our current Renewable Electricity projects are QFs. As a result, the facilities are exempt from rate regulation under Sections 205 and 206 of the Federal Power Act. We are required to document the QF status of each of our facilities in applications or

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self-certifications filed with FERC, which typically require disclosure of upstream facility ownership, fuel and size characteristics, power sales, interconnection matters, and related technical disclosures. Failure to maintain QF status may subject the project to additional regulatory requirements and may require the payment of refunds to customers and other costs or penalties.

We are subject to the Clean Air Act which regulates the emissions of pollutants to protect the environmental and public health. The combustion of biogas results in emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter. Federal, state and local laws may require us to obtain permits or impose other burdens, including monitoring, testing recordkeeping and reporting by us in order for us to conduct operations. In addition, our operations and the operations of landfills may be subject to additional air emissions laws and regulations, such as those designed to address the emission of methane, a potent GHG.

Among other laws, we are subject to Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and other federal, state and local laws, which impose conditions on the handling of non-hazardous waste, including the emission of methane in landfills. Likewise, we are subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and other federal, state and local laws, which govern the investigation and cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances. We have not been identified as a potentially responsible party with respect to environmental remedial costs at any site to date. We also may be required to obtain permits to discharge wastewater and stormwater pursuant to the Clean Water Act’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System and other federal, state and local laws governing such discharges.

Our RNG projects are subject to federal RFS program regulations, including the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act. The EPA administers the RFS program with volume requirements for several categories of renewable fuels. The EPA’s RFS regulations establish rules for fuel supplied and administer the RIN system for compliance, trading credits and rules for waivers. The EPA calculates a blending standard for each year based on estimates of gasoline usage from the Department of Energy’s Energy Information Agency. Separate quotas and blending requirements are determined for cellulosic biofuels, BBD, advanced biofuels and total renewable fuel. Further, we are required to register each RNG project with the EPA and relevant state regulatory agencies.

We qualify our RINs through a voluntary Quality Assurance Plan, which typically takes from three to five months from first injection of RNG into the commercial pipeline system. Further, we typically make a large investment in the project prior to receiving the regulatory approval and RIN qualification. In addition to registering each RNG project, we are subject to quarterly audits under the Quality Assurance Plan of our projects to validate our qualification.

Our RNG projects are also subject to state renewable fuel standard regulations. The CA LCFS program requires producers of petroleum-based fuels to reduce the CI of their products, beginning with a quarter of a percent in 2011, a 10% total reduction in 2020, and a 20% total reduction in 2030. Petroleum importers, refiners and wholesalers can either develop their own low-carbon fuel products, or buy CA LCFS credits from other companies that develop and sell low-carbon alternative fuels, such as biofuels, electricity, natural gas or hydrogen. We are subject to a qualification process similar to that for RINs, including verification of CI levels and other requirements, currently exists for CA LCFS credits.

Our RNG projects are also impacted by state and federal gas quality standards. State regulators determine whether RNG may be purchased by the state’s local gas utilities, and whether a site operator may directly sell gas to a retail, or direct end-use, customer. FERC regulates the natural gas pipelines that transport gas in interstate commerce, and specifies or approves a gas pipeline’s tariff that sets the rates, terms and conditions, gas quality, and other requirements applicable to transportation of natural gas on the pipelines, including shipping RNG. Our sites are not permitted, and may not be physically able, to deliver RNG to a FERC regulated pipeline unless the pipeline’s receipt of the gas is consistent with the standards adopted in the pipeline’s FERC tariff. RNG-related gas quality standards may vary by pipeline and may be revised at any time, subject to all required regulatory approvals. We routinely test the RNG produced at our facilities in order to ensure compliance with applicable pipeline gas quality standards.

We monitor regulatory trends and developments in the U.S. regarding the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. We are aware the EPA proposed the regulation of methane emissions, a greenhouse gas, from oil and gas facilities in November 2021. We do not anticipate this proposed regulation will apply to our operations and could, combined with another public policy and private sector initiatives, increase interest in developing more renewable energy projects in the U.S. We will continue to monitor greenhouse gas regulatory initiatives in the U.S. and assess their potential relevance to our business and operations.

We routinely conduct compliance audits on our projects to proactively identify and correct potential compliance deficiencies or risks. Additionally, we closely monitor emerging regulatory developments that may impact our operations or business strategy. Montauk also participates in industry trade groups, such as the RNG Coalition, to advocate policies and regulatory frameworks that support continued expansion of renewable energy in the United States.

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The operation of our business may expose us to certain liabilities and compliance costs related to environmental matters. These liabilities or compliance costs did not have a material effect on our capital expenditures or competitive position for fiscal 2023, nor do we expect them to have a material effect in the future. We believe we are in material compliance with all environmental regulations applicable to our operations.

Inflation Reduction Act. The Inflation Reduction Act (IRA or the Act) will be administered by multiple federal agencies including EPA, U.S. Department of Energy and the Internal Revenue Service of the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The goals of the IRA include incentivizing the development and production of renewable energy. We cannot speculate on exactly how the IRA will be implemented; however, the Act does contain numerous incentives for the production of clean energy which may impact our products.

Employees and Human Capital Resources

Employee Profile

We employed 151 people on December 31, 2023, located in California, Idaho, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and Texas. Our employee population is comprised of a mix of field operations personnel and office-based professionals. As of December 31, 2023, none of our employees were represented by a collective bargaining unit or labor union. We consider our employee relations to be good across our organization.

Health and Safety

Safety, including the health of our employees, is one of our core values and a priority across our operations. We are committed to developing a strong health and safety culture that reduces injuries and illness whenever possible. Our health and safety strategy is designed to proactively identify, mitigate and eliminate conditions that could result in serious injury or fatality. We also routinely train our employees on health and safety practices applicable to their job function and provide them all necessary personal protective equipment to perform their job in a safe manner.

Our recordable cases and total recordable incident rate (“TRIR”), excluding COVID-19 related incidents, was 0.00 and 3.00 in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The 2022 TRIR national average was 2.7 for all industries. We continue to focus on practices and measures to lower our TRIR.

Employee Development and Training

The success and growth of our business is significantly correlated with our ability to recruit, train, promote and retain talented individuals at all levels of our organization. To succeed in a competitive labor market, we have developed and implemented various recruitment and retention strategies. These include competitive salary structures, bonus programs and competitive benefits, as well as paid time off, sick leave, disability coverage, group term life insurance, and a retirement savings program. We also offer our employees tuition reimbursement for job-related education and training opportunities. We have also begun leadership and developmental training for our director and manager level employees.

Intellectual Property

We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, employee and third-party nondisclosure/confidentiality agreements and license agreements to protect our intellectual property. We acquired certain technology associated with the Montauk Ag Renewables Acquisition for which we received a patent during 2021 with a term of 20 years. In 2022, we filed a provisional patent application pertaining to a combustion-based oxygen removal condensate neutralization technology we developed. The provisional patent covers a new low pH neutralization technology designed to mitigate unfavorable pH condensate that is produced when wastewater is removed from the biogas conversion process. While we hold patents related to our business, we do not view our patents to be material to our total business.

Segments and Geographic Information

We have two operating segments: Renewable Natural Gas and Renewable Electricity Generation. While our corporate entity is not an operating segment, we discretely disclose corporate entity revenues for purposes of reconciliation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements. For information regarding revenues and other information regarding our results of operations for each of our last two financial years, please refer to our financial statements included in this report and within “Item 7.—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this report.

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Corporate Information

Montauk Renewables, Inc. is incorporated in the State of Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 5313 Campbells Run Road, Suite 200, Pittsburgh, PA 15205. Our telephone number is (412) 747-8700.

We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov.

We also make financial information, news releases and other information available on our corporate investor relations website at www.ir.montaukrenewables.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), are available free of charge on this website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file these reports and amendments with, or furnish them to, the SEC. The information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this or any other report filed with the SEC.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. We currently intend to take advantage of several of these reduced reporting requirements, including the extended transition periods for complying with new or revised accounting standards. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Emerging Growth Company Risks” for certain risks related to our status as an emerging growth company.

We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) corporate governance standards. Certain stockholders, which are affiliates of two of our directors, Mr. John A. Copelyn and Theventheran G. Govender, own approximately 52.3% of our common stock and have entered into a Consortium Agreement (the “Consortium Agreement”) whereby the parties thereto will agree to act in concert with respect to voting our common stock, including in the election of directors, among other matters. As a controlled company, we may elect not to comply with certain Nasdaq corporate governance standards. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Common Stock Risks” for certain risks related to our status as a controlled company.

This report includes estimates, projections, and other information concerning our industry and market data, including data regarding the estimated size of the market, projected growth rates, and perceptions and preferences of consumers. We obtained this data from industry sources, third-party studies, including market analyses and reports, and internal company surveys. Industry sources generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Although we are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this report, and we believe the industry and market data to be reliable as of the date of this report, this information could prove to be inaccurate.

Information About Our Executive Officers

Below is a list of the names, ages, and positions of our executive officers, and a brief summary of the business experience of our executive officers (ages as of March 1, 2024).

 

Name

 

Age

 

Position

Sean F. McClain

 

49

 

President and Chief Executive Officer, Director

Kevin A. Van Asdalan

 

46

 

Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer

James A. Shaw

 

52

 

Vice President of Operations

Michael Barsch

 

50

 

Vice President of Business Development

John Ciroli

 

53

 

Chief Legal Officer and Secretary

Sharon Frank

 

67

 

Vice President of Environmental, Health and Safety

Sean F. McClain. Mr. McClain has served as our President and Chief Executive Officer and a member of our Board of Directors since January 2021. Prior to the Reorganization Transactions, Mr. McClain served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Montauk Holdings USA and as a member of its Board of Directors. From April 2011 until September 2019, Mr. McClain served as Chief Financial Officer of Montauk Holdings USA and Montauk Energy Holdings. Prior to joining Montauk in 2011, he held various management positions with BPL Global Limited, Bayer and Dick’s Sporting Goods and was in public accounting at Arthur Andersen LLP. He is a certified public accountant and has over 25 years of business and financial management experience.

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Kevin A. Van Asdalan. Mr. Van Asdalan has served as our Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since January 2021. Prior to the Reorganization Transactions, Mr. Van Asdalan served as Chief Financial Officer of Montauk Holdings USA and as a member of its Board of Directors. From March 2018 until September 2019, Mr. Van Asdalan served as Controller of Montauk Energy Holdings and Montauk Holdings USA. Prior to joining Montauk in 2018, Mr. Van Asdalan served as a lines of business controller and manager of external reporting at L.B. Foster Company, a manufacturer, distributor and service provider for transportation and energy infrastructure, from July 2011 to March 2018. Prior to L.B. Foster, Mr. Van Asdalan held senior associate accounting positions at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP and Sisterson & Co LLP. He is a certified public accountant and chartered global management accountant with nearly 25 years of business and financial management experience and holds a Master of Business Administration from the University of Pittsburgh Katz Graduate School of Business.

James A. Shaw. Mr. Shaw has served as our Vice President of Operations since January 2021 and has served as Vice President of Operations of Montauk Energy Holdings since September 2019. He previously served as North Region Manager of Montauk Energy Holdings from May 2016 to September 2019. He was a Site Manager for five Montauk Energy Holdings operating sites from April 2015 to April 2016 and two Montauk Energy Holdings operating sites from June 2010 to March 2015. Prior to joining Montauk, Mr. Shaw was a facility manager for SONY Electronics at the world’s first vertically integrated television manufacturing facilities. Mr. Shaw has more than 25 years of experience in facilities operations and management.

Michael J. Barsch. Mr. Barsch has served as our Vice President of Business Development since September 2023. He previously served as Director of Projects from January to September 2023. From February 2021 to January 2023, Mr. Barsch was Vice President of Construction for BerQ RNG, a renewable energy producer. Mr. Barsch was a renewable energy consultant from March 2019 to February 2021 and Vice President of Projects for Energy Developments Limited, a renewable energy producer, from March 2016 to March 2019. From November 2013 to March 2016, he was Managing Director of Construction for Renewable Energy Trust Capital. Mr. Barsch has over 25 years of experience managing the construction of renewable energy projects.

John Ciroli. Mr. Ciroli has served as our Chief Legal Officer since January 2023. He served as our Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary from January 2021 until January 2023 and in the same role with Montauk Energy Holdings upon joining in July 2020. From July 2016 to July 2020, Mr. Ciroli was the North American Counsel and HR Manager for the North American subsidiaries of FAAC Group, a company that designs solutions for pedestrian and vehicle needs, representing the entities in their American and Canadian portfolio. From 2014 to July 2016, Mr. Ciroli was a Senior Litigation Counsel with the Housing Authority of the City of Pittsburgh. Mr. Ciroli has over 25 years of experience representing and advising domestic and international corporations and government entities in the areas of contracts, mergers and acquisitions, litigation, employment and governmental procurement and regulatory affairs. He was also a professor for Concord Law School, now Purdue Global, in the areas of Contracts, Constitutional Law, Torts and Evidence and is a member of the Pennsylvania State Bar and the bar of the U.S. Supreme Court.

Sharon Frank. Ms. Frank has served as our Vice President of Environmental, Health and Safety since October 2021. She served as our Director of Environmental, Health and Safety from April 2020 until October 2021 and as Manager of Environmental Compliance from June 2007 until April 2020. Prior to joining Montauk, from 2000 to 2007, Ms. Frank was Manager of Environmental Affairs for Duquesne Light Company’s unregulated business group. Ms. Frank has over 30 years of regulatory and environmental compliance experience.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking information based on our current expectations. Because our business is subject to many risks and our actual results may differ materially from any forward-looking statements made by or on behalf of us, this section includes a discussion of important factors that could affect our business, operating results, financial condition and the trading price of Montauk common stock. You should carefully consider these risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as well as our other publicly available filings with the SEC. Although the risks are organized by headings, and each risk is discussed separately, many are interrelated.

 

Operational Risks

Our renewable energy projects may not generate expected levels of output.

 

Landfills contain organic material whose decomposition causes the generation of gas consisting primarily of methane, which our RNG projects use to generate power or renewable natural gas, and carbon dioxide. The estimation of landfill gas production volume is an inexact process and dependent on many site-specific conditions, including the estimated annual waste volume, composition of waste, regional climate and the capacity and construction of the landfill. Production levels are subject to a number of additional risks, including a failure or wearing out of our or our landfill operators’, customers’ or utilities’ equipment; an inability to find suitable replacement equipment or parts; less than expected supply or quality of the project’s source of biogas and faster

than expected diminishment of such biogas supply; or volume disruption in our fuel supply collection system. Any extended interruption and/or volume disruption in the project’s operation, or failure of the project for any reason to generate the expected amount of output, could adversely affect our business and operating results. For example, we produced fewer MMBTu and MWh in the third quarter of 2023 compared with the third quarter of 2022 due to dry weather conditions and higher ambient temperatures. In addition, we have in the past, and may in the future, incur material asset impairment charges if any of our renewable energy projects incurs operational issues that indicate our expected future cash flows from the project are less than the project’s carrying value. Any such impairment charge could adversely affect our operating results in the period in which the charge is recorded.

 

In addition, in order to maximize collection of LFG, we will need to take various measures, such as drilling additional gas wells in the landfill to increase LFG collection, balancing the pressure on the gas field based on the data collected by the landfill operator from the gas wells to ensure optimum landfill gas utilization and ensuring that we match availability of engines and related equipment to availability of LFG. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to take all necessary measures to maximize collection. In addition, the LFG available to our projects is dependent in part on the actions of other persons, such as landfill operators. We may not be able to ensure the responsible management of the landfill site by owners and operators, which may result in less than optimal gas generation or increase the likelihood of “hot spots” occurring. Hot spots can temporarily reduce the volume of gas which may be collected from a landfill site, resulting in a lower gas yield. Other events that can result in a reduction in LFG output include: extreme hot or cold temperatures or excessive rainfall; liquid levels within a landfill increasing; oxidation within a landfill, which can kill the anaerobic microbes that produce landfill gas; and the buildup of sludge. The occurrence of these or any other changes within any of the landfills where our projects operate could lead to a reduction in the amount of LFG available to operate our projects, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

The concentration in revenues from five of our projects and geographic concentration of our projects expose us to greater risks of production interruptions from severe weather or other interruptions of production or transmission.

 

A substantial portion of our revenues are generated from five project sites. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, excluding the effect of derivative instruments, approximately 68.4% and 72.4%, respectively, of operating revenues were derived from these locations. During 2023, RNG production at our McCarty, Rumpke, Atascocita and Apex facilities accounted for approximately 16.2, 18.8%, 21.0% and 9.9% of our RNG revenues, respectively, and 14.5%, 24.7%, 20.2% and 9.9% of the RNG we produced during 2023, respectively. During 2023, Renewable Electricity production at our Bowerman Power LFG, LLC (“Bowerman”) facility accounted for approximately 89.7% of our Renewable Electricity Generation revenues and 80.3% of the Renewable Electricity we produced during 2023. A lengthy interruption of production or transmission of renewable energy from one or more of these projects, as a result of a severe weather event, failure or degradation of our or a landfill operator’s equipment or interconnection transmission problems could have a disproportionate effect on our revenues and cash flow.

 

Our Atascocita, McCarty, Galveston and Coastal Plains projects are located within 20 miles of each other near Houston, Texas and seven of our other RNG projects are located in relatively close proximity to each other in Pennsylvania and Ohio. Regional events, such as gas transmission interruptions, regional availability of replacement parts and service in the event of equipment failures and severe weather events in either of those geographic regions have previously adversely affected, and if the future could adverse

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affect, our RNG production and transmission. These impacts are greater than would be if our business was more geographically diverse.

 

Our projects are not able to insure against all potential risks and may become subject to higher insurance premiums.

 

Our projects are exposed to the risks inherent in the construction and operation of renewable energy projects, such as breakdowns, manufacturing defects, extreme weather, natural disasters, terrorist attacks and sabotage. We are also exposed to environmental risks.

 

We have insurance policies covering certain risks associated with our business. Our insurance policies do not, however, cover all losses, including, in some situations, those as a result of force majeure, which is generally defined as events that are beyond the control of the parties. For example, we did not receive any insurance recovery from the shutdowns in Houston in February 2021 due to the extreme cold or from the Bowerman shutdown in October 2020 due to wildfires. Even if insurance policies for some of our projects cover losses as a result of certain types of force majeure events, such coverage is subject to important limitations. Furthermore, insurance liabilities are difficult to assess and quantify due to unknown factors, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties, the number of incidents not reported and the effectiveness of our safety program. Insurance coverage is not always available on commercially reasonable terms (if at all) and is often capped at predetermined limits. In addition, our insurance policies are subject to annual review by our insurers and may not be renewed on similar or favorable terms or at all. A serious uninsured loss or a loss significantly exceeding the limits of our insurance policies could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Competition Risks

 

We may face intense competition and may not be able to successfully compete.

 

There are a number of other companies operating in the renewable energy and waste-to-energy markets. These include other renewable energy companies and service or equipment providers, consultants, managers and strategic investors.

 

We may not have the resources to compete with our existing competitors or with any new competitors, including in a competitive bidding process. Some of our competitors have significantly larger personnel, financial and managerial resources than we have, and we may fail to maintain or expand our business. Our competitors may also offer energy solutions at prices below cost, devote significant sales forces to competing with us or attempt to recruit our key personnel by increasing compensation, any of which could improve their competitive positions. Moreover, if the demand for renewable energy increases, new companies may enter the market, and the influx of added competition will pose an increased risk to us.

 

Further, certain of our strategic partners and other landfill or agricultural operators could decide to manage, recover and convert biogas from waste to renewable energy on their own which would further increase our competition, limit the number of commercially viable landfill sites available for our projects or require us to reduce our profit margins to maintain or acquire projects.

 

Our success depends, in part, on technological innovation to stay ahead of market competitors.

 

Our success will depend on our ability to create and maintain a competitive position in the renewable energy industry. Other than the patented technology acquired through the Montauk Ag Renewables Acquisition and our internally developed condensate neutralization technology, we do not have any exclusive rights to any of the technologies that we utilize, and our competitors may currently use and may be planning to use identical, similar or superior technologies. While significant to the development associated with our emerging North Carolina Montauk Ag Renewables business, we do not currently consider patented technology material to the total business. In addition, the technologies that we use may be rendered obsolete or uneconomical by technological advances, more efficient and cost-effective processes or entirely different approaches developed by one or more of our competitors or others.

 

We may also face competition based on technological developments that reduce demand for electricity, increase power supplies through existing infrastructure or that otherwise compete with our projects. We also encounter competition in the form of potential customers electing to develop solutions or perform services internally rather than engaging an outside provider such as us.

 

Our use and enjoyment of real property rights for our projects may be adversely affected by the rights of lienholders and leaseholders that are superior to those of the grantors of those real property rights to our projects.

 

Our projects generally are, and any of our future projects are likely to be, located on land occupied pursuant to long-term easements, leases and rights of way. The ownership interests in the land subject to these easements, leases and rights-of-way may be subject to mortgages securing loans or other liens (such as tax liens) and other easement, lease rights and rights-of-way of third parties

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(such as leases of oil or mineral rights) that were created prior to our projects’ easements, leases and rights-of-way. As a result, certain of our projects’ rights under these easements, leases or rights-of-way may be subject, and subordinate, to the rights of those third parties. We may not be able to protect our operating projects against all risks of loss of our rights to use the land on which our projects are located, and any such loss or curtailment of our rights to use the land on which our projects are located and any increase in rent due on such lands could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We may not be able to obtain long-term contracts for the sale of power produced by our projects on favorable terms and we may not meet certain milestones and other performance criteria under existing PPAs.

 

Obtaining long-term contracts for the sale of power produced by our projects at prices and on other terms favorable to us is essential for the long term success of our business. We must compete for PPAs against other developers of renewable energy projects. This intense competition for PPAs has resulted in downward pressure on PPA pricing for newly contracted projects. The inability to compete successfully against other power producers or otherwise enter into PPAs favorable to us would negatively affect our ability to develop and finance our projects and negatively affect our revenues. In addition, the availability of PPAs depends on utility and corporate energy procurement practices that could evolve and shift allocation of market risks over time. Further, PPA availability and terms are a function of a number of economic, regulatory, tax, and public policy factors, which are also subject to change.

 

Our PPAs typically require us to meet certain milestones and other performance criteria. Our failure to meet these milestones and other criteria, including minimum quantities, may result in price concessions, in which case we would lose any future cash flow from the relevant project. In addition, we have in the past and, in the future, may be required to pay fees and penalties to our counterparty. We cannot assure you that we will be able to perform our obligations under such agreements, that fees and penalties will remain insignificant, or that we will have sufficient funds to pay any fees or penalties thereunder.

 

Business Strategy Risks

 

Our commercial success depends on our ability to identify, acquire, develop and operate individual renewable energy projects, as well as our ability to maintain and expand production at our current projects.

 

We aim to maintain and grow our position as a leading producer of RNG in the United States. Our specific focus on the renewable energy sector exposes us to risks related to the supply of and demand for energy commodities and Environmental Attributes, the cost of capital expenditures, government regulation, world and regional events and economic conditions, and the acceptance of alternative power sources. As a renewable energy producer, we may also be negatively affected by lower energy output resulting from variable inputs, mechanical breakdowns, faulty technology, competitive electricity markets or changes to the laws and regulations that mandate the use of renewable energy sources by refiners and importers of gasoline and diesel fuel and electric utilities.

In addition, several other factors related to the development and operation of individual renewable energy projects could adversely affect our business, including:

regulatory changes that affect the demand for or supply of Environmental Attributes and the prices thereof, which could have a significant effect on the financial performance of our projects and the number of potential projects with attractive economics;
changes in energy commodity prices, such as natural gas and wholesale electricity prices, which could have a significant effect on our revenues;
changes in pipeline gas quality standards or other regulatory changes that may limit our ability to transport RNG on pipelines for delivery to third parties or increase the costs of processing RNG to allow for such deliveries;
changes in the broader waste collection industry, including changes affecting the waste collection and biogas potential of the landfill industry, which could impede the LFG resource that we currently target for our projects;
substantial construction risks, including the risk of delay, that may arise due to forces outside of our control, including those related to engineering and environmental problems, as a result of inclement weather or labor disruptions;
operating risks and the effect of disruptions on our business, weather conditions, catastrophic events such as fires, explosions, earthquakes, droughts and acts of terrorism, and other force majeure events on us, our customers, suppliers, distributors and subcontractors;
the ability to obtain financing for a project on acceptable terms or at all and the need for substantially more capital than initially budgeted to complete projects and exposure to liabilities as a result of unforeseen environmental, construction, technological or other complications;

 

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entering into markets where we have less experience, such as our projects for biogas recovery at livestock farms;
exposure to liabilities as a result of unforeseen environmental, construction, technological or other complications;
failures or delays in obtaining desired or necessary land rights, including ownership, leases, easements, zoning rights and building permits;
a decrease in the availability, pricing and timeliness of delivery of raw materials and components, necessary for the projects to function;
obtaining and keeping in good standing permits, authorizations and consents from local city, county, state and U.S. federal governments as well as local and U.S. federal governmental organizations;
penalties, including potential termination, under short-term and long-term contracts for failing to deliver RNG in accordance with our contractual obligations;
unknown regulatory changes RNG which may increase the transportation cost for delivering under contracts in place;
the consent and authorization of local utilities or other energy development off-takers to ensure successful interconnection to energy grids to enable power sales; and
difficulties in identifying, obtaining and permitting suitable sites for new projects.

 

In addition, new projects have no operating history and may employ recently developed technology and equipment. A new project may be unable to fund principal and interest payments under its debt service obligations or may operate at a loss, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

We may also experience delays and cost overruns in converting existing facilities from Renewable Electricity to RNG production. During the conversation projects, there is a gap in production and relating revenue while the electricity project is offline until it commences operation as an RNG facility, which adversely affects our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any of these factors could prevent us from identifying, completing or operating our projects, or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

If there is not sufficient demand for renewable energy, or if renewable energy projects do not develop or take longer to develop than we anticipate, we may be unable to achieve our investment objectives.

 

If demand for renewable energy fails to grow sufficiently, we may be unable to achieve our business objectives. In addition, demand for renewable energy projects in the markets and geographic regions that we target may not develop or may develop more slowly than we anticipate. Many factors will influence the widespread adoption of renewable energy and demand for renewable energy projects, including:

cost-effectiveness of renewable energy technologies as compared with conventional and competitive technologies;
performance and reliability of renewable energy products as compared with conventional and non-renewable products;
fluctuations in economic and market conditions that impact the viability of conventional and competitive alternative energy sources;
increases or decreases in the prices of oil, coal and natural gas;
continued deregulation of the electric power industry and broader energy industry; and
availability or effectiveness of government subsidies and incentives.

 

Our fuel supply agreements with site hosts have defined contractual periods, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully extend these agreements at their historic revenue levels or at all.

 

Fuel supply rights are issued by the landfill owner to operators for a contractual period. As operators, we have already invested resources in the development of existing sites and the ability to extend these contracts on expiration would enable us to achieve operational efficiency in continuing to generate revenues from a site without significant additional capital investments. We cannot assure you that we will be able to extend existing fuel supply agreements at their historic revenue levels or at all when they expire.

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Our agreements contain complex price adjustments, calculations and other terms based on gas price indices and other metrics, the interpretation of which could result in disputes with counterparties that could affect our results of operations and customer relationships.

 

Certain of our PPAs, fuel supply agreements, RNG off-take agreements and other agreements require us to make payments or adjust prices to counterparties based on past or current changes in gas price indices, project productivity or other metrics and involve complex calculations. Moreover, the underlying indices governing payments under these agreements are subject to change, may be discontinued or replaced. The interpretation of these price adjustments and calculations and the potential discontinuation or replacement of relevant indices or metrics have resulted, and in the future, could result in disputes with the counterparties with respect to these agreements. Any such disputes could adversely affect project revenues, expense margins, customer or supplier relationships, or lead to costly litigation, the outcome of which we would be unable to predict.

 

In order to secure contracts for new projects, we typically face a long and variable development cycle that requires significant resource commitments and a long lead time before we realize revenues.

 

The development, design and construction process for our renewable energy projects generally lasts from 18 to 36 months, on average. This extended development process requires the dedication of significant time and resources from our sales and management personnel, with no certainty of success or recovery of our expenses. A potential site host may go through the entire sales process and not accept our proposal. Further, upon commencement of operations, it typically takes 12 months or longer for the project to ramp up to our expected production level. All of these factors, and in particular, increased spending that is not offset by increased revenues, can contribute to fluctuations in our quarterly financial performance and increase the likelihood that our operating results in a particular period will fall below investor expectations.

 

We plan to expand our business in part through developing RNG recovery projects at landfills and livestock farms, but we may not be able to identify suitable locations or complete development of new projects.

 

We plan to continue to develop new RNG projects at landfills and livestock farms but we may be unable to implement this growth strategy if we cannot identify suitable landfills and livestock farms on which to develop projects, reach agreements with landfill or livestock farm owners to develop RNG projects or arrange required financing for new projects. While the EPA has identified an additional 463 landfills as candidates for biogas projects, we believe that approximately 38 of these sites produce sufficient quantities of LFG to support commercial-scale projects, with 25 of the approximately 38 sites being operated by Waste Management or Republic Waste, with whom we would need to negotiate with to secure sufficient LFG rights to support an RNG project. In the future, additional candidate landfills may become economically viable as their growth increases LFG production and requires installation of LFG collection systems. However, the time and effort involved in attempting to identify suitable sites and development of new projects may divert members of our management from our operations.

 

Our dairy farm project has, and any future digester project will have, different economic models and risk profiles than our landfill facilities, and we may not be able to achieve the operating results we expect from these projects.

 

Our dairy farm project produces significantly less RNG than our landfill facilities. As a result, we will be even more dependent on the LCFS credits and RINs produced at our dairy farm project than on the RINs produced at our landfill facilities for the project’s commercial viability. Since the number of LCFS credits for RNG generated on dairy farms is significantly greater than the number of LCFS credits for RNG generated at landfills, we are substantially more dependent upon the revenue from LCFS credits for the commercial viability of the dairy farm project. In the event that CARB worsens the CI score that it applies to waste conversion projects, such as dairy digesters, the number of LCFS credits for RNG generated at our dairy farm project will decline. Additionally, revenue from LCFS credits also depends on the price per LCFS credit, which is driven by various market forces, including the supply of and demand for LCFS credits, which in turn depends on the demand for traditional transportation fuel and the supply of renewable fuel from other renewable energy sources, and mandated CI targets, which determine the number of LCFS credits required to offset LCFS deficits, and which increase over time. Fluctuations in the price of LCFS credits or the number of LCFS credits assigned will have a significantly greater impact on the success of our dairy farm project than the value that RINs have on our landfill facilities. A significant decline in the value of LCFS credits could require us to incur an impairment charge on our dairy farm project and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

While we currently focus on converting methane into renewable energy, in the future we may decide to expand our strategy to include other types of projects. Any future energy projects may present unforeseen challenges and result in a competitive disadvantage relative to our more established competitors.

 

Our business is currently focused on converting methane into renewable energy. In the future, we may expand our strategy to include other types of projects. For example, we recently entered into an agreement with European Energy North America under which we supply biogenic carbon dioxide for the creation of e-methanol. We cannot assure you that we will be able to identify

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attractive opportunities outside of our current area of focus or acquire or develop such projects at a price and on terms that are attractive or that, once acquired or developed, such projects will operate profitably. In addition, these projects could expose us to increased operating costs, unforeseen liabilities or risks, and regulatory and environmental concerns associated with entering into new sectors of the energy industry, including requiring a disproportionate amount of our management’s attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business, as well as place us at a competitive disadvantage relative to more established market participants. A failure to successfully integrate such new projects into our existing project portfolio as a result of unforeseen operational difficulties or otherwise, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Any future acquisitions, investments or other strategic relationships that we make could disrupt our business, cause dilution to our stockholders or harm our business, financial condition or operating results.

 

We expect future acquisitions of companies, purchases of assets and other strategic relationships to be an important part of our growth strategy. We plan to use acquisitions to expand our capabilities, expand our geographic markets, add experienced management and add to our project portfolio. However, we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition or investment candidates, reach agreements with acquisition targets on acceptable terms or arrange for any required financing for an acquisition on acceptable terms, any of which would materially impact our present strategy. While we perform due diligence on prospective acquisitions, we may not be able to discover all potential operational deficiencies in such projects. Further, if we are successful in consummating acquisitions, those acquisitions could subject us to a number of risks, including:

the purchase prices we pay could significantly deplete our cash reserves or result in dilution to our existing stockholders;
we may find that the acquired companies or assets do not improve our customer offerings or market position as planned;
we may have difficulty integrating the operations and personnel of the acquired companies;
key personnel and customers of the acquired companies may terminate their relationships with the acquired companies as a result of or following the acquisition;
we may experience additional financial and accounting challenges and complexities in areas such as tax planning and financial reporting;
we may experience delays in construction and development or regulatory approvals impacting, among other projects, the Pico, Apex or Montauk Ag development cycle;
we may incur additional costs and expenses related to inflation and complying with additional laws, rules or regulations in new jurisdictions;
we may assume or be held liable for risks and liabilities (including for environmental-related costs) as a result of our acquisitions, some of which we may not discover during our due diligence or adequately adjust for in our acquisition arrangements;
our ongoing business and management’s attention may be disrupted or diverted by transition or integration issues and the complexity of managing geographically diverse enterprises;
we may incur one-time write-offs or restructuring charges in connection with an acquisition;
we may acquire goodwill and other intangible assets that are subject to amortization or impairment tests, which could result in future charges to earnings; and
we may not be able to realize the cost savings or other modeled financial benefits we anticipated.

 

Any of these factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

 

Our renewable fuel projects may be exposed to the volatility of the price of RINs.

 

The price of RINs is driven by various market forces, including regulatory action, gasoline prices and the availability of renewable fuel from other renewable energy sources and conventional energy sources. For example, following the EPAs release of the 2023 RVO in December 2022, the market price of a D3 RIN declined from $2.43 on the date of the release to $1.88 in February 2023. Furthermore, refiners are permitted to carry-over up to 20% RINs generated for one calendar year after the RINs are generated to satisfy their RVOs. As a result, we are only able to sell RINs on a forward basis for the year in which the RINs are generated and the following year. We may be unable to manage the risk of volatility in RIN pricing for all or a portion of our revenues from RINs, which would expose us to the volatility of commodity prices with respect to all or the portion of RINs that we are unable to sell through forward contracts, including risks resulting from changes in regulations, general economic conditions and changes in the level of renewable energy generation. We expect to have quarterly variations in the revenues from the projects in which we generate revenue from the sale of RINs that we are unable to sell through forward contracts.

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Our revenues may be subject to the risk of fluctuations in commodity prices.

 

The operations and financial performance of projects in the renewable energy sectors may be affected by the prices of energy commodities, such as natural gas, wholesale electricity and other energy-related products. For example, the price of renewable energy resources changes in relation to the market prices of natural gas and electricity. The market price for natural gas is sensitive to cyclical demand and capacity supply, changes in weather patterns, natural gas storage levels, natural gas production levels, general economic and geopolitical conditions (including the current conflicts in the Middle East and Ukraine) and the volume of natural gas imports and exports. The market price of electricity is sensitive to cyclical changes in demand and capacity supply, and in the economy and geopolitical conditions (including the current conflicts in the Middle East and Ukraine), as well as to regulatory trends and developments impacting electricity market rules and pricing, transmission development and investment to power markets within the United States and in other jurisdictions through interconnects and other external factors outside of the control of renewable energy power-producing projects. Volatility of commodity prices also creates volatility in the prices of Environmental Attributes, which are inversely related to the wholesale price of unleaded gasoline. In addition, volatility of commodity prices, such as the market price of gas and electricity, may also make it more difficult for us to raise any additional capital for our renewable energy projects that may be necessary to operate, to the extent that market participants perceive that a project’s performance may be tied directly or indirectly to commodity prices. Accordingly, the potential revenues and cash flows of these projects may be volatile and adversely affect the value of our investments.

 

Our off-take agreements for the sale of RNG are typically shorter in duration than our fuel supply agreements. Accordingly, if we are unable to renew or replace an off-take agreement for a project for which we continue to produce RNG, we would be subject to the risks associated with selling the RNG produced at that project at then-current market prices. We may be required to make such sales at a time when the market price for natural gas as a whole or in the region where that project is located, is depressed. If this were to occur, we would be subject to the volatility of gas prices and be unable to predict our revenues from such project, and the sales prices for such RNG may be lower than what we could sell the RNG for under an off-take agreement.

 

We are subject to volatility in prices of RINs and other Environmental Attributes.

 

Volatility of commodity prices creates volatility in the price of Environmental Attributes. The value of RINs is inversely proportionate to the wholesale price of unleaded gasoline. Further, the production of RINs significantly in excess of the RVOs set by the EPA for a calendar year could adversely affect the market price of RINs, particularly towards the end of the year, if refiners and other RFS obligated parties have satisfied their RVOs for the year. A significant decline in the price of RINs and price of LCFS credits for a prolonged period could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, and could require us to take an impairment charge relating to one or more of our projects.

 

We are exposed to the risk of failing to meet our contractual commitments to sell RINs from our production.

 

We may sell forward a portion of our RINs under contracts to fix the revenues from such attributes for financing purposes or to manage our risk against future declines in prices of such Environmental Attributes. If our RNG projects do not generate the amount of RINs sold under such forward contracts we may be required to make up the shortfall of RINs under such forward contracts through purchases on the open market or the payment of liquidated damages. Forward selling our RINs could result in realized prices monetized in a year which do not correspond directly to index prices.

 

The failure of our hedge counterparties or significant customers to meet their obligations to us may adversely affect our financial results.

 

To the extent we hedge our RNG revenues, our hedging transactions expose us to the risk that a counterparty fails to perform under a derivative contract. Volatility in the market index to which we hedge our RNG revenues could expose us to variability in our commodity based revenues. Disruptions in the financial markets could lead to sudden decreases in a counterparty’s liquidity, which could make them unable to perform under the terms of the derivative contract and we may not be able to realize the benefit of the derivative contract. Any default by the counterparty to these derivative contracts could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We also face credit risk because we sell our RNG to a limited number of significant customers who do not post collateral. The inability or failure of our significant customers to meet their obligations to us or their insolvency or liquidation may adversely affect our financial results.

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Regulatory Risks

 

The reduction or elimination of governmental economic incentives for renewable energy projects or other related policies could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.

 

We depend, in part, on Environmental Attributes, which are federal, state and local government incentives in the United States, provided in the form of RINs, RECs, LCFS credits, rebates, tax credits and other incentives to end users, distributors, system integrators and manufacturers of renewable energy projects, that promote the use of renewable energy. RINs are created through the RFS program administered by the EPA, which requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum volume of renewable fuel and has historically permitted refineries and importers of transportation fuel to satisfy their RVOs by purchasing either (i) D5 RINs and cellulosic waiver credits (“CWCs”) or (ii) D3 RINs. In a December 1, 2022 proposed rule, EPA proposed to not utilize its cellulosic waiver authority for the years 2023-2025. However, if actual production is lower than the RVO, the EPA will have discretion to utilize CWC. RECs are created through state law requirements for utilities to purchase a portion of their energy from renewable energy sources. 76% and 70% of our operating revenues for 2023 and 2022, respectively, were generated from the sale of Environmental Attributes. These government economic incentives could be reduced or eliminated altogether, or the categories of renewable energy qualifying for such government economic incentives could be changed. These renewable energy program incentives are subject to regulatory oversight and could be administratively or legislatively changed in a manner that could adversely affect our operations. Further, the generation of LCFS credits on our dairy farm project is expected to increase the percentage of our revenues generated from Environmental Attributes. Reductions in, changes to, or eliminations or expirations of governmental incentives could result in decreased demand for, and lower revenues from, our projects. Changes in the level or structure of the RPS of a state for electricity could also result in a decline in our revenues or decreased demand for, and lower revenues from, our electricity projects.

 

We may be unable to obtain, modify or maintain the regulatory permits, approvals and consents required to construct and operate our projects.

 

Our operations are subject to various federal, state and local EHS laws and regulations, including those relating to the release, emission or discharge of materials into the air, water and ground, the generation, storage,

handling, use, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, the health and safety of our employees and other persons, and the generation of RINs and LCFS credits.

 

These laws and regulations impose numerous obligations applicable to our operations, including the acquisition of permits before construction and operation of our projects; the restriction of types, quantities and concentration of materials that can be released into the environment; the limitation or prohibition of our activities on certain lands lying within wilderness, wetlands and other protected areas; the application of specific health and safety criteria addressing worker protection; and the imposition of substantial liabilities for pollution resulting from the ownership or operation of our properties. These laws, regulations and permits can require expensive pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit actual or potential impacts to the environment.

 

Numerous governmental entities have the power to enforce difficult and costly compliance measures or corrective actions pursuant to these laws and regulations and the permits issued under them. We may be required to make significant capital and operating expenditures on an ongoing basis, or to perform remedial or other corrective actions at our properties, to comply with the requirements of these environmental laws and regulations or the terms or conditions of our permits. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in the assessment of sanctions, including administrative, civil or criminal penalties, the imposition of investigatory or remedial obligations, and the issuance of orders limiting or prohibiting some or all of our operations. In addition, we may experience delays in obtaining or be unable to obtain required environmental regulatory permits or approvals, which may delay or interrupt our operations and limit our growth and revenue.

 

Our operations inherently risk incurring significant environmental costs and liabilities due to the need to manage waste from our processing facilities. Spills or other releases of regulated substances, including spills and releases that occur in the future, could expose us to material losses, expenditures and liabilities under applicable environmental laws, rules and regulations. Under certain of such laws and regulations, we could be held strictly liable for the removal or remediation of previously released materials or property contamination, regardless of whether we were responsible for the release or contamination and even if our operations met previous standards in the industry at the time they were conducted. In connection with certain acquisitions, we could acquire, or be required to provide indemnification against, environmental liabilities that could expose us to material losses. In addition, claims for damages to persons or property, including natural resources, may result from the EHS impacts of our operations. Our insurance may not cover all environmental risks and costs or may not provide sufficient coverage if an environmental claim is made against us.

 

New laws, changes to existing laws, new interpretations of existing laws, increased governmental enforcement of environmental laws or other developments could require us to make significant additional expenditures. Continued government and public emphasis on environmental issues can be expected to result in increased future investments for environmental controls at our plants. Present and future environmental laws and regulations, and interpretations of those laws and regulations, applicable to our

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operations, more vigorous enforcement policies and discovery of currently unknown conditions may require substantial expenditures that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In January 2021, President Biden issued an executive order directing all federal agencies to review and take action to address any federal regulations, orders, guidance documents, policies, and any similar agency actions promulgated during the prior administration that may be inconsistent with the current administration’s policies and to address climate change. The federal agencies review of previous agency actions remain ongoing. In January 2021, President Biden also issued an executive order solely targeting climate change. Pursuant to these executive orders, on February 19, 2021 the United States formally rejoined the Paris Climate Agreement, an international treaty that provides for the cutting of carbon emissions every five years, beginning in 2023. In August 2022, President Biden signed into law the Inflation Reduction Act, which includes incentives for development and production of renewable energy. These incentives include grants, loan guaranties, development funding, investment tax credits, and production tax credits. At this time, we cannot predict the outcome of any of these executive actions on our operations.

 

Our ability to generate revenue from sales of RINs and LCFS credits depends on our strict compliance with these federal and state programs, which are complex and can involve a significant degree of judgment. If the agencies that administer and enforce these programs disagree with our judgments, otherwise determine that we are not in compliance, conduct reviews of our activities or make changes to the programs, then our ability to generate or sell these credits could be temporarily restricted pending completion of reviews or as a penalty, permanently limited or lost entirely, and we could also be subject to fines or other sanctions. Moreover, the inability to sell RINs and LCFS credits could adversely affect our business.

 

In order to construct, modify and operate our projects, we will need to obtain or may need to modify numerous environmental and other regulatory permits, approvals and consents from federal, state and local governmental entities, including air permits, wastewater discharge permits, stormwater permits, permits or consents related to the management of municipal solid waste landfills and permits or consents related to the management and disposal of waste. A number of these permits, approvals and consents must be obtained prior to the start of development of a project. Other permits, approvals and consents are required to be obtained at, or prior to, the time of first commercial operation or within prescribed time frames following commencement of commercial operations. Any failure to successfully obtain or modify the necessary environmental and other regulatory permits, approvals and consents on a timely basis could delay the construction, modification or commencement of commercial operation of our projects. In addition, once a permit, approval or consent has been issued or acquired for a project, we must take steps to comply with the conditions of each permit, approval or consent conditions, including conditions requiring timely development and commencement of the project. Failure to comply with certain conditions within a permit, approval or consent could result in the revocation or suspension of such permit, approval or consent; the imposition of penalties; or other enforcement action by governmental entities. We also may need to modify permits, consents or approvals we have already obtained to reflect changes in project design or requirements, which could trigger a legal or regulatory review under a standard more stringent than the standard under which the permits, approvals or consents were originally issued.

 

Obtaining and modifying necessary permits, approvals and consents is a time-consuming and expensive process, and we may not be able to obtain or modify them on a timely or cost-effective basis or at all. In the event that we fail to obtain or modify all necessary permits, approvals or consents, we may be forced to delay construction or operation of a project or abandon the project altogether, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may be required to make capital expenditures on an ongoing basis to comply with increasingly stringent federal, state, provincial and local EHS laws, regulations and permits.

 

 

Negative attitudes toward renewable energy projects from the U.S. government, other lawmakers and regulators, and activists could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Parties with an interest in other energy sources, including lawmakers, regulators, policymakers, environmental and advocacy organizations or other activists may invest significant time and money in efforts to delay, repeal or otherwise negatively influence regulations and programs that promote renewable energy. Many of these parties have substantially greater resources and influence than we have. Further, changes in U.S. federal, state or local political, social or economic conditions, including a lack of legislative focus on these programs and regulations, could result in their modification, delayed adoption or repeal. Any failure to adopt, delay in implementing, expiration, repeal or modification of these programs and regulations, or the adoption of any programs or regulations that encourage the use of other energy sources over renewable energy, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition, in June 2019, the EPA issued the final Affordable Clean Energy (“ACE”) rule and repealed the Clean Power Plan (the “CPP”), which had previously established standards to limit carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from existing fossil-fueled power generation facilities. Under the ACE rule, emissions from electric utility generation facilities would be regulated only through the use of various “inside the fence” or onsite efficiency improvements and emission control technologies. In contrast, the CPP allowed facility owners to reduce emissions with “outside the fence” measures, including those associated with renewable energy projects. On January 19, 2021, the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit vacated the ACE rule and remanded the rule back to EPA

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for reconsideration of the “best system of emission reduction.” On February 22, 2021, the D.C. Circuit subsequently issued an order allowing EPA to promulgate new standards in lieu of reviving the CPP. In June 2022, however, the U.S. Supreme Court reversed the D.C. Circuit’s decision on the ACE rule and remanded the case back to the D.C. Circuit. The U.S. Supreme Court restricted the EPA’s authority to regulate GHGs from existing power plants under Section 111(d). The U.S. Supreme Court concluded that Congress did not grant the EPA authority under the CAA to demand generation-shifting to achieve reduction of GHG emissions, but the court did not hold that the EPA is limited in future rulemakings to just the heat-rate improvements that made up the ACE rule. On remand from the Supreme Court, the D.C. Circuit in October 2022 upheld EPA's repeal of the CPP, and it granted the parties' motion to hold the remaining challenges to the ACE rule in abeyance, as EPA indicated it intended to repeal the ACE rule and issue a new proposed regulation for GHG from electric generating units. To ensure that the ACE rule is not implemented in the interim period, EPA issued a direct final rule in March 2023, delaying the deadlines for states to submit implementation plans for the ACE rule. On May 23, 2023, the EPA published a proposed rule that would vacate the ACE rule, establish emissions guidelines in the form of CO2 emissions limitations for certain existing fossil-fueled power generation facilities and would require states to develop state plans that establish standards of performance for such facilities that are at least as stringent as the EPA’s emissions guidelines. Depending on various facility-specific factors, the bases of proposed emissions guidelines range from routine methods of operation to shutting down certain types of units in the early 2030s, to carbon capture and sequestration or co-firing low-GHG hydrogen starting in the 2030s. The EPA is expected to publish a final rule in the first half of 2024, which is expected to face legal challenges similar to prior challenges to the ACE rule and the CPP. We are unable to predict the future course of the EPA's proposed rule and any related litigation, nor the direction that the EPA may take in the future to regulate GHG emissions from existing fossil fuel-fired generation facilities. The impact of these potential developments is unclear.

 

Revenue from any projects we complete may be adversely affected if there is a decline in public acceptance or support of renewable energy, or regulatory agencies, local communities, or other third parties delay, prevent, or increase the cost of constructing and operating our projects.

 

Certain persons, associations and groups could oppose renewable energy projects in general or our projects specifically, citing, for example, misuse of water resources, landscape degradation, land use, food scarcity or price increase and harm to the environment. Moreover, regulation may restrict the development of renewable energy plants in certain areas. In order to develop a renewable energy project, we are typically required to obtain, among other things, environmental impact permits or other authorizations and building permits, which in turn require environmental impact studies to be undertaken and public hearings and comment periods to be held during which any person, association or group may oppose a project. Any such opposition may be taken into account by government officials responsible for granting the relevant permits, which could result in the permits being delayed or not being granted or being granted solely on the condition that we carry out certain corrective measures to the proposed project. Opposition to our projects’ requests for permits or successful challenges or appeals to permits issued for our projects could adversely affect our operating plans.

 

As a result, we cannot guarantee that the renewable energy plants we currently plan to develop or, to the extent applicable, are developing, will ultimately be authorized or accepted by the local authorities or the local population. For example, the local population could oppose the construction of a renewable energy plant or infrastructure at the local government level, which could in turn lead to the imposition of more restrictive requirements. This type of negative response may lead to legal, public relations or other challenges that could impede our ability to meet our construction targets, achieve commercial operations for a project on schedule, address the changing needs of our projects over time or generate revenues.

 

In certain jurisdictions, if a significant portion of the local population were to mobilize against a renewable energy plant, it may become difficult, or impossible, for us to obtain or retain the required building permits and authorizations. Moreover, such challenges could result in the cancellation of existing building permits or even, in extreme cases, the dismantling of, or the retroactive imposition of changes in the design of, existing renewable energy plants.

 

Authorization for the use, construction, and operation of systems and associated transmission facilities on federal, state, and local lands will also require the assessment and evaluation of mineral rights, private rights-of-way, and other easements; environmental, agricultural, cultural, recreational, and aesthetic impacts; and the likely mitigation of adverse effects to these and other resources and uses. The inability to obtain the required permits and other federal, state and local approvals, and any excessive delays in obtaining such permits and approvals due, for example, to litigation or third-party appeals, could potentially prevent us from successfully constructing and operating such projects in a timely manner and could result in the potential forfeiture of any deposit we have made with respect to a given project. Moreover, project approvals subject to project modifications and conditions, including mitigation requirements and costs, could affect the financial success of a given project. Changing regulatory requirements and the discovery of unknown site conditions could also adversely affect the financial success of a given project.

 

A decrease in acceptance of renewable energy plants by local populations, an increase in the number of legal challenges, or an unfavorable outcome of such legal challenges could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be subject to labor unavailability due to multiple simultaneous projects in a geographic region. If we are unable to grow and

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manage the capacity that we expect from our projects in our anticipated timeframes, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Existing regulations and policies, and future changes to these regulations and policies, may present technical, regulatory and economic barriers to the generation, purchase and use of renewable energy, and may adversely affect the market for credits associated with the production of renewable energy.

 

The market for renewable energy is influenced by U.S. federal, state and local government regulations and policies concerning renewable energy. These regulations and policies are continuously being modified, which could result in a significant future reduction in the potential demand for renewable energy, including RINs, RECs and LCFS credits, renewable energy project development and investments. Renewable Fuel Standards for 2023 through 2025 remain subject to finalization. Any new government regulations applicable to our renewable energy projects or markets for renewable energy may result in significant additional expenses or related development costs and, as a result, could cause a significant reduction in demand for our renewable energy. For additional information on regulatory developments, see “Item 7A.—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations —Key Trends—Regulatory, Environmental and Social Trends.”

 

In order to benefit from RINs and LCFS credits, our RNG projects are required to be registered and are subject to regulatory audit.

 

We are required to register an RNG project with the EPA and relevant state regulatory agencies. Further, we qualify our RINs through a voluntary Quality Assurance Plan, which typically takes from three to five months from first injection of RNG into the commercial pipeline system. Although no similar qualification process currently exists for LCFS credits, we expect such a process to be implemented and would expect to seek qualification on a state-by-state basis under such future programs. Changes to the LCFS program require annual verification of the CI score assigned to a project. Annual verification could significantly affect the profitability of a project, particularly in the case of a livestock farm project. Delays in obtaining registration, RIN qualification, and any future LCFS credit qualification, or CI rescoring through CARB annual audits, of a new project could delay future revenues from the project and could adversely affect our cash flow. Further, we typically make a large investment in the project prior to receiving the regulatory approval and RIN qualification. By registering each RNG project with the EPA’s voluntary Quality Assurance Plan, we are subject to quarterly third-party audits and semi-annual on-site visits of our projects to validate generated RINs and overall compliance with the RFS program. We are also subject to a separate third party’s annual attestation review. The Quality Assurance Plan provides a process for RIN owners to follow, for an affirmative defense to civil liability, if used or transferred Quality Assurance Plan verified RINs were invalidly generated. A project’s failure to comply could result in remedial action by the EPA, including penalties, fines, retirement of RINs, or termination of the project’s registration, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For additional information on recent developments in this area, including the Pico facility’s CI score, see “Item 7A.—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Trends—Regulatory, Environmental and Social Trends.”

 

Our business is subject to the risk of extreme or changing weather patterns.

 

Extreme weather patterns related to climate change could cause changes in rainfall and storm patterns and intensities, water shortages and changing temperatures, which could result in significant volatility in the supply and prices of energy. In addition, legislation and increased regulation regarding climate change could impose significant costs on us and our suppliers, including costs related to capital equipment, environmental monitoring and reporting and other costs to comply with such regulations.

 

Furthermore, extreme weather events, such as lightning strikes, ice storms, tornados, extreme wind, hurricanes and other severe storms, wildfires and other unfavorable weather conditions or natural disasters, such as floods, fires, earthquakes, and rising sea-levels, could adversely affect the input and output commodities associated with the renewable energy sector. Such weather events or natural disasters could also require us to temporarily or permanently shut down the equipment associated with our renewable energy projects, such as our access to power and our power to biogas collection, separation and transmission systems, which would impede the ability of our projects to operate and decrease production levels and our revenue. Operational problems, such as degradation of our project’s equipment due to wear or weather or capacity limitations or outages on the electrical transmission network, could also affect the amount of energy that our projects are able to deliver. Any of these events, to the extent not fully covered by insurance, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

These events could result in significant volatility in the supply and prices of energy. This volatility may create fluctuations in commodity or energy prices and earnings of companies in the renewable energy sectors. See “—Operational Risks—“The concentration in revenues from five of our projects and geographic concentration of our projects expose us to greater risks of production interruptions from severe weather or other interruptions of production or transmission” for additional information.

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Our business is subject to risks arising out of climate change, which could result in increased operating costs.

 

Numerous proposals have been made and are likely to continue to be made at the international, national, regional and state levels of government to monitor and limit existing emissions of GHGs and eliminate future GHG emissions. Governmental and public concern arising from GHG emissions has resulted in increasing regulatory, political, financial and litigation risks in the United States and globally that target predominantly fossil fuel-related energy entities or their operations, which may have indirect effects on other companies or industries, including the renewable energy industry.

 

The United States has not implemented comprehensive federal climate change legislation. The EPA has adopted rules that, among other things, establish permit reviews for GHG emissions from certain large stationary sources, require the monitoring and annual reporting of GHG emissions from specified sources in the U.S., implement standards reducing emissions of methane, a form of GHG, from specified oil and gas sectors, and together with the U.S. Department of Transportation, implement GHG emissions limits on vehicles manufactured for operation in the United States. While these rules largely do not directly impact our operations, they do represent a concerted effort at the federal agency level to reduce emissions of GHGs in an effort to mitigate adverse effects associated with climate change, which could in turn result in increased demand for renewable energy.

 

Additionally, in August 2022 the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 was signed into law, which appropriates significant federal funding for renewable energy initiatives and, for the first time ever, imposes a fee on GHG emissions from certain facilities in the oil and natural gas sector. The emissions fee and renewable and low carbon energy funding provisions of the law could accelerate the transition away from fossil fuels, which could in turn have an indirect adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Under the Biden Administration, it is anticipated that efforts by the EPA or other federal agencies to restrict GHG emissions will continue. Additionally, various states and groups of states have adopted or are considering adopting legislation, regulations or other regulatory initiatives that are focused on such areas as GHG cap and trade programs, carbon taxes, reporting and tracking programs, and restriction of emissions. As a result, there exists the possibility of executive orders being issued or federal legislation or regulatory initiatives being adopted that could result in further restrictions on fossil fuels and have a further indirect effect on the demand for renewable energy and our products.

 

In addition, on March 6, 2024, the SEC adopted new rules mandating significantly expanded climate-related disclosures in SEC filings, including disclosures relating to certain climate-related risks and related governance matters, climate-related metrics and Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions, if material, information about climate-related targets and goals, transition plans, if any, and certain attestation requirements. The rules include certain phase-in compliance dates based a filer’s status under applicable SEC rules. Under the phase-in dates included in the SEC’s rules, assuming that we continue to be an “accelerated filer” as defined in SEC rules, we would become subject to the new disclosure requirements commencing with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2026, except for the following disclosure requirements: (i) requirements to disclose certain material expenditures incurred and material impacts on financial estimates and assumptions relating to mitigation activities, transition plans and targets and goals, to which we would become subject commencing with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2027 and (ii) requirements to disclose Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions metrics that we determine to be material, to which we would become subject commencing with our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ending June 30, 2029 (in relation to the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2028). In addition, commencing with our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ending June 30, 2032, we will be required to obtain and file with the SEC a “limited assurance” attestation report from an independent attestation service provider covering the Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions metrics that we disclose (if any). We are currently assessing the impact these SEC’s new rules will have on us. In addition, a group of 10 state attorneys general have already filed a petition in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit asking the court to vacate the SEC’s rules, and it is widely expected that the rules will face additional legal challenges. For these reasons, we cannot currently predict with certainty the timing and costs of implementation or any potential adverse impacts resulting therefrom. However, assuming that the rules take effect in the form adopted by the SEC, we expect to incur significant additional costs relating to the assessment and disclosure of climate-related matters, including costs relating to establishment of additional internal controls, monitoring, collecting, analyzing and reporting the new metrics and implementing systems and procuring additional internal and external personnel with the requisite skills and expertise to serve those functions. These additional costs or changes in operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We may also face increased litigation risks related to disclosures made pursuant to the rules. In addition, enhanced climate-related disclosure requirements could accelerate the trend of certain investors and lenders restricting or seeking more stringent conditions with respect to their investments in carbon-intensive sectors.

 

The SEC’s new climate-related disclosure rules will require public companies to disclose the capitalized costs, expenditures expensed, and losses related to carbon offsets and RECs if used as a material component of the company’s plans to achieve its disclosed climate-related targets or goals. It is possible that these disclosure requirements could make RECs less attractive to customers, which could negatively impact demand and market prices for RECs. Although the RECs we currently produce are sold under long-term PPAs with prices that are not subject to adjustment based on market prices, if demand and market prices for RECs decrease, then our ability to sell additional RECs in the future at attractive prices may be negatively affected.

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Cybersecurity and Information Technology Risks

A failure of our IT and data security infrastructure could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

 

We rely upon the capacity, reliability and security of our IT and data security infrastructure and our ability to expand and continually update this infrastructure in response to the changing needs of our business. Our existing IT systems and any new IT systems may not perform as expected. We also face the challenge of supporting our older systems and implementing necessary upgrades. If we experience a problem with the functioning of an important IT system or a security breach of our IT systems, including during system upgrades or new system implementations, the resulting disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

We and some of our third-party vendors receive and store personal information in connection with our human resources operations and other aspects of our business. Our IT systems and those of our third-party vendors, are vulnerable to damages from computer viruses, natural disasters, fire, power loss, telecommunications failures, personnel misconduct, human error, unauthorized access, physical or electronic security breaches, cyber-attacks (including malicious and destructive code, phishing attacks, ransomware, and denial of service attacks), and other similar disruptions. We continue to develop our processes relating to identification, mitigation and response to potential cybersecurity threats, and such processes may prove to be inadequate. Such attacks or security breaches may be perpetrated by bad actors internally or externally (including computer hackers, persons involved with organized crime, or foreign state or foreign state-supported actors). Cybersecurity threat actors employ a wide variety of methods and techniques that are constantly evolving, increasingly sophisticated, and difficult to detect and successfully defend against. Cybersecurity incidents involving our IT systems or those of our third-party vendors could expose us to claims, litigation, regulatory or other governmental investigations, administrative fines and potential liability. Any system failure, accident or security breach could result in disruptions to our operations. A material network breach in the security of our IT systems or those of our third-party vendors could include the theft of our trade secrets, customer information, human resources information or other confidential data, including but not limited to personally identifiable information, that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. To the extent that any material disruptions or security breaches result in a loss or damage to our data, or an inappropriate disclosure of confidential, proprietary or customer information, it could materially cause damage to our reputation, affect our relationships with our customers and strategic partners, lead to claims against us from governments and private plaintiffs, and ultimately have a material adverse effect on our business. While we have been the previous target of cyberattacks and security breaches, none of these attacks or breaches to date have had a material adverse effect on us. We cannot guarantee that future cyberattacks, if successful, will not have a material effect on our business or financial results.

 

Many governments have enacted laws requiring companies to provide notice of cyber incidents involving certain types of data, including personal data. Any compromise of our security could result in a violation of applicable domestic and foreign security, privacy or data protection, consumer and other laws, regulatory or other governmental investigations, enforcement actions, and legal and financial exposure, including potential contractual liability that could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against and remediate damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future that could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

We rely on the technology, infrastructure, and software applications of certain third parties in order to host or operate some of our business. Additionally, we rely on computer hardware purchased in order to operate our business. We do not have control over the operations of the facilities of the third parties that we use. In addition, as of the date of this Report, we have not implemented formal processes to oversee and identify risks from cybersecurity threats associated with our use of third parties. If any of these third-party services experience errors, disruptions, security issues, or other performance deficiencies, if these services, software, or hardware fail or become unavailable due to extended outages, interruptions, defects, or otherwise, or if they are no longer available on commercially reasonable terms or prices (or at all), these issues could result in material errors or defects in our platforms (including causing our platforms to fail), our revenue and margins could materially decline, or our reputation and brand to be materially damaged. Additionally, we could be exposed to material legal or contractual liability, our expenses could materially increase, our ability to manage our operations could be materially interrupted, and our processes for servicing our customers could be materially impaired until equivalent services or technology, if available, are identified, procured, and implemented, all of which may take significant time and resources, increase our costs, and could materially and adversely affect our business. Many of these third-party providers attempt to impose limitations on their liability for such errors, disruptions, defects, performance deficiencies, or failures, and if such limitations are enforceable, we may have additional liability to our customers or third-party providers that could have a material adverse effect on our business. A failure to maintain our relationships with our third-party providers (or obtain adequate replacements), and to receive services from such providers that do not contain any material errors or defects, could adversely affect our ability to deliver effective products and solutions to our customers and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

Our business could be negatively affected by security threats, including cybersecurity threats and other disruptions.

 

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As a renewable energy producer, we face various security threats, including among others, computer viruses, malware, ransomware, telecommunication and electrical failures, cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the internet, attachments to emails, persons with access to systems inside our organization, cybersecurity threats to gain unauthorized access to sensitive information or to expose, exfiltrate, alter, delete or render our data or systems unusable, threats to the security of our projects and infrastructure or third-party facilities and infrastructure, such as processing projects and pipelines, natural disasters, threats from terrorist acts and war.

 

As cyber incidents become more frequent and the sophistication of threat actors increases, our associated cybersecurity costs have and are expected to continue to increase. Specifically, we expect to implement several incremental cybersecurity improvements over the next 18 to 36 months to enhance our defensive capabilities and resilience. Despite our ongoing and anticipated cybersecurity efforts, a successful cybersecurity incident could lead to additional material costs, including those related to the loss of sensitive information, repairs to infrastructure or capabilities essential to our operations, responding to litigation or regulatory investigations, and those related to a material and adverse impact on our reputation, financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.

 

Third-Party Partner Risks

 

Failure of third parties to manufacture quality products or provide reliable services in a timely manner could cause delays in developing and operating our projects, which could damage our reputation, adversely affect our partner relationships or adversely affect our growth.

 

Our success depends on our ability to develop and operate projects in a timely manner, which depends in part on the ability of third parties to provide us with timely and reliable products and services. In developing and operating our projects, we rely on products meeting our design specifications and components manufactured and supplied by third parties, and on services performed by subcontractors. We also rely on subcontractors to perform substantially all of the construction and installation work related to our projects, and we often need to engage subcontractors with whom we have no experience.

 

If any of our subcontractors are unable to provide services that meet or exceed our customers’ expectations or satisfy our contractual commitments, our reputation, business and operating results could be harmed. In addition, if we are unable to avail ourselves of warranties and other contractual protections with providers of products and services, we may incur liability to our customers or additional costs related to the affected products and services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, any delays, malfunctions, inefficiencies or interruptions in these products or services could adversely affect the quality and performance of our projects and require considerable expense to maintain and repair our projects. This could cause us to experience interruption in our production and distribution of renewable energy and generation of related Environmental Attributes, difficulty retaining current relationships and attracting new relationships, or harm our brand, reputation or growth.

 

Our projects rely on interconnections with and access to electric distribution and transmission facilities and gas transportation pipelines that are owned and operated by third parties, and as a result, are exposed to risks related to such facilities’ development and operational curtailment risks.

 

Our projects are interconnected with electric distribution and transmission facilities owned and operated by regulated utilities necessary to deliver the Renewable Electricity that we produce. Our RNG projects are similarly interconnected with gas distribution and interstate pipeline systems required to deliver RNG. A failure or delay in the operation or development of these distribution or transmission facilities could result in a loss of revenues or breach of contract because such a failure or delay could limit the amount of RNG and Renewable Electricity that our operating projects deliver or delay the completion of our construction projects. In addition, certain of our operating projects’ generation may be curtailed without compensation due to distribution and transmission limitations, reducing our revenues and impairing our ability to capitalize fully on a particular project’s potential. Such a failure or curtailment at levels above our expectations could impact our ability to satisfy our supply agreements and adversely affect our business. Additionally, we experience work interruptions from time to time due to federally required maintenance shutdowns.

 

We are dependent upon our relationships with Waste Management and Republic Services for the operation and maintenance of landfills on which several of our RNG and Renewable Electricity projects operate.

 

We currently operate seven renewable energy projects (six RNG projects and one Renewable Electricity project) on landfills operated by Waste Management and two RNG projects on landfills operated by Republic Services. Our projects located on Waste Management operated landfills represented 37.3% and 38.9% of our revenue in 2023 and 2022, respectively. Our projects located on Republic Services operated landfills represented 22.2% and 25.1% of our revenue in 2023 and 2022, respectively.We are dependent upon Waste Management and Republic Services to operate and maintain their landfill facilities and provide a continuous supply of waste for conversion to RNG and Renewable Electricity. Further, we consider our relationship with these landfill operators an important factor in our growth strategy for additional projects. In the event that we fall out of favor with either of these landfill

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operators due to a dispute, problems with our operations at one of their facilities or otherwise, the landfill operator may seek to terminate the related project and be less inclined to work with us on future projects.

 

Additionally, Waste Management and Republic Services could seek to develop their own waste-to-renewable energy conversion projects at other existing landfill locations in lieu of contracting with us for these projects. Failure to maintain these favorable relationships could adversely affect our business, growth strategy, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We have significant customer concentration, with a limited number of customers accounting for a substantial portion of our revenues.

 

In 2023, sales to Valero, GE Warren and HF Sinclair represented approximately 22.0%, 11.7% and 11.7%, respectively of our operating revenue. For 2022, sales to ExxonMobil, Valero, and the City of Anaheim represented approximately 32.0%, 17.0%, and 7.6%, respectively of our operating revenues. Five customers made up approximately 70.7% and 69.0% of our accounts receivable as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Revenues from our largest customers may fluctuate from time to time based on our customers’ business needs, market conditions or other factors outside of our control. If any of our largest customers terminates its relationship with us, such termination could adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.

Capital and Credit Risks

 

Our senior credit facility may not be sufficient to meet our financial needs and contains financial and operating restrictions that may limit our business activities and our access to other forms of credit.

 

Our senior credit facility consists of an $80.0 million principal amount term loan, of which $64.0 remains outstanding as of December 31, 2023, and a $120.0 million revolving credit line, which is undrawn as of December 31, 2023. This facility may not be sufficient to meet our financial needs as our business grows. The senior credit facility matures in December 2026 and we may be unable to extend or replace it on acceptable terms, or at all. Furthermore, the credit agreement governing our facility (the “Amended Credit Agreement”) imposes business restrictions and contains other covenants that require us to meet specified financial ratios and financial tests. Under the Amended Credit Agreement, we are required to maintain:

a fixed charge coverage ratio of at least 1.20 to 1.00; and
a total leverage ratio of not more than 3.25 to 1.00 as of the end of any fiscal quarter from June 30, 2023 through June 29, 2024 and 3.00 to 1.00 after June 30, 2024.

 

The Amended Credit Agreement is subject to customary events of default, and contemplates that we would be in default if, for any fiscal quarter (x) the average monthly D3 RIN price is less than $0.80 per RIN and (y) the consolidated EBITDA for such quarter is less than $6.0 million. Additional information regarding the senior credit facility and the Amended Credit Agreement can be found in Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

 

Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in the declaration of an event of default and cause us to be unable to borrow under the Amended Credit Agreement. In addition to preventing additional borrowings under the Amended Credit Agreement, an event of default, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of the maturity of indebtedness outstanding under the facility, which would require us to immediately repay all amounts outstanding. If an event of default occurs, we may not be able to cure it within any applicable cure period, or at all. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all covenants.

 

Variable rate indebtedness under our Amended Credit Agreement may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Borrowings under our Amended Credit Agreement are at variable rates of interest, particularly the Bloomberg Short-Term Bank Yield Index Rate (“BSBY”), which will fluctuate with changing market conditions. If BSBY increases, our interest expense will mechanically increase, which could adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to service our indebtedness and fund our operations. Additionally, BSBY is a relatively new reference rates. Therefore, based on its limited historical performance and other available information, the future performance of BSBY cannot be accurately predicted, which could result in increases in our interest expense that may adversely impact the amount of interest payments under the Amended Credit Agreement.

 

In addition, on November 15, 2023, the Bloomberg Index Services Limited announced that the permanent cessation of BSBY and all its tenors will be effective on November 15, 2024. Under the terms of our Amended Credit Agreement, the first alternative reference rate to be used upon the cessation of BSBY is Term SOFR, as administered by CME Group Benchmark Administration Limited, plus a “SOFR Adjustment” equal to (i) 0.11448% per annum for borrowings with a one-month duration and (ii) 0.26161%

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per annum for borrowings of a three-month duration (or other durations). Assuming the reference rate under our Amended Credit Agreement transitions to Term SOFR plus the applicable SOFR Adjustment following cessation of BSBY, if Term SOFR increases, our interest expense will mechanically increase, which could adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to service our indebtedness and fund our operations.

 

We may be required to write-off or impair capitalized costs or intangible assets in the future or we may incur restructuring costs or other charges, each of which would harm our earnings.

 

In accordance with GAAP, we capitalize certain expenditures and advances relating to our acquisitions, pending acquisitions, project development costs, interest costs related to project financing and certain energy assets. In addition, we have considerable unamortized assets. In 2023, we recorded impairment charges of $0.9 million of which $0.8 million related to specifically identified RNG machinery and feedstock processing equipment that were no longer in operational use and $0.1 related to obsolete REG critical spares. In 2022, we recorded impairment charges of $2.1 million related to our estimate of future cash flows not exceeding the carrying amount of a Renewable Electricity facility and discrete charges of $1.4 million and $1.1 million related to the ongoing development of the Montauk Ag Renewables and an asset component of an RNG facility. In 2021, we recorded impairment charges of $0.8 million related to the ongoing Renewable Electricity facility decommissioning and $0.4 million related to certain assets at one RNG facility. In addition, from time to time in future periods, we may be required to incur a charge against earnings in an amount equal to any unamortized capitalized expenditures and advances, net of any portion thereof that we estimate will be recoverable, through sale or otherwise, relating to: (i) any operation or other asset that is being sold, permanently shut down, impaired or has not generated or is not expected to generate sufficient cash flow; (ii) any pending acquisition that is not consummated; (iii) any project that is not expected to be successfully completed; and (iv) any goodwill or other intangible assets that are determined to be impaired. A material write-off or impairment change could adversely affect our ability to comply with the financial covenants under the Amended Credit Agreement, and otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Emerging Growth Company Risks

For as long as we are an emerging growth company, we will not be required to comply with certain requirements that apply to other public companies.

 

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we are an emerging growth company, which may be up to five full fiscal years following January 22, 2021, the completion of the IPO, unlike other public companies, we will not be required to, among other things: (i) provide an auditor’s attestation report on management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our system of internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act; (ii) comply with any new requirements adopted by the PCAOB requiring mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report in which the auditor would be required to provide additional information about the audit and the financial statements of the issuer; (iii) provide certain disclosures regarding executive compensation required of larger public companies; or (iv) hold nonbinding advisory votes on executive compensation and any golden-parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), for adopting new or revised financial accounting standards. We intend to take advantage of the longer phase-in periods for the adoption of new or revised financial accounting standards permitted under the JOBS Act until we are no longer an emerging growth company. If we were to subsequently elect instead to comply with these public company effective dates, such election would be irrevocable pursuant to the JOBS Act.

 

We will remain an emerging growth company for up to five years after January 22, 2021, the date of the IPO, although we will lose that status sooner if we have more than $1.07 billion of revenues in a fiscal year, have more than $700.0 million in market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates, or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period.

 

For so long as we rely on any of the exemptions available to emerging growth companies, you will receive less information about our executive compensation and internal control over financial reporting than issuers that are not emerging growth companies. We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock to be less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.

 

If we identify material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect our business.

 

We are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of controls over financial reporting. As an emerging growth company, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to

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Section 404 until the date we are no longer an emerging growth company. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event that it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating.

 

To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we have undertaken various actions, including implementing additional internal controls and procedures and hiring additional accounting or internal audit staff, increasing the use of external specialists and may need to take additional actions in the future. Testing and maintaining internal controls can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting or are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 or assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

 

Common Stock Risks

 

Our shares of common stock may trade on more than one market and this may result in price variations.

 

The Company’s common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the ticker symbol of “MNTK” and on the JSE under the ticker symbol of “MKR.” Trading in our common stock takes place in USD on the Nasdaq Capital Market and ZAR on the JSE, and at different times, resulting from different time zones, trading days and public holidays in the United States and South Africa. The trading prices of our common stock on these two markets may differ due to these and other factors. Any decrease in the price of our common stock on either exchange could cause a corresponding decrease in the trading price of the common stock on the other exchange.

 

Future sales of our common stock in the public market could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

 

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise

capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Many of our existing equity holders have substantial unrecognized gains on the value of the equity they hold and may take steps to sell their shares or otherwise secure the unrecognized gains on those shares. Additionally, pursuant to the terms of the Fourth Amended and Restated Promissory Note, MNK is required to use the proceeds from any sale of the 976,623 shares of our common stock pledged as security for MNK’s loan obligations to repay the amounts due under the Note. These sales may have a downward impact on the prevailing market price of our common stock. The maturity of the loan has been extended until 2033 but MNK will continue to evaluate options to complete the sale of these shares including but not limited to register sale or underwritten offering in the US or direct sale to a South African investor. We also have default provisions in the underlying note whereby MNK can satisfy the note by delivering the shares back to us as permitted by applicable law. We are unable to predict the timing of or the effect that such sales, by MNK or by other shareholders, may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock.

 

We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq rules and, as a result, qualify for, and intend to rely on, exemptions and relief from certain governance requirements.

 

Stockholder affiliates of Mr. Copelyn and Mr. Govender have entered into a Consortium Agreement whereby they agree to act together when voting our common stock in the election of directors, among other matters. The parties to the Consortium Agreement beneficially owned, in the aggregate, approximately 52.3% of our common stock as of February 28, 2024. As a result, we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq corporate governance standards. Under these corporate governance standards, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power in the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements. For example, controlled companies are not required to have:

a board that is composed of a majority of “independent directors,” as defined under the Nasdaq rules;
a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors; and
director nominations that are made, or recommended to the full board of directors, by its independent directors, or by a nominations/governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors.

 

We may rely on any or all of these exemptions so long as we remain a controlled company.

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The concentration of our capital stock ownership may limit our stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and may involve other risks.

 

As a result of the Consortium Agreement, certain stockholders control matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of our directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. This concentration of ownership may also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control that may be otherwise viewed as beneficial by stockholders other than management. Accordingly, other stockholders may not have any influence over significant corporate transactions and other corporate matters. There is also a risk that certain controlling stockholders may have interests which are different from other stockholders and that they will pursue an agenda which is beneficial to themselves at the expense of other stockholders.

 

Certain of our directors reside outside of the United States and it may be difficult to enforce judgments against them in the United States.

 

Two of our directors, all of our executive officers and all of our operating assets reside in the United States. Directors Copelyn, Govender, Ahmed and Shaik are residents of South Africa. As a result, it may not be possible for you to effect service of legal process, within the United States or elsewhere, upon certain of our directors, including matters arising under U.S. federal securities laws. This may make it difficult or impossible to bring an action against these individuals in the United States in the event that a person believes that their rights have been violated under applicable law or otherwise. Even if an action of this type is successfully brought, the laws of the United States and South Africa may render a judgment unenforceable.

 

General Risk Factors

 

Our issuance of additional capital stock in connection with financings, acquisitions, investments, our equity incentive plans or otherwise will dilute stockholders.

 

We expect to issue additional capital stock in the future that will result in dilution to stockholders. We expect to grant equity awards to employees, directors and consultants under our equity incentive plans. We may also raise capital through equity financings in the future. As part of our business strategy, we may acquire or make investments in companies and issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition or investment. Any such issuances of additional capital stock may cause stockholders to experience significant dilution of their ownership interests and the per share value of our common stock to decline.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us. If securities or industry analysts initiate coverage and one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our company, our common stock share price would likely decline. If analysts publish target prices for our common stock that are below historical sales prices or the then-current public price of our common stock, it could cause our stock price to decline significantly. Further, if one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our common stock could decrease, which might cause our common stock price and trading volume to decline.

 

We are highly dependent on our senior management team and other highly skilled personnel, and if we are not successful in attracting or retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.

 

Our success depends, in significant part, on the continued services of our senior management team and on our ability to attract, motivate, develop and retain a sufficient number of other highly skilled personnel, including engineering, design, finance and support personnel. Our senior management team has extensive experience in the renewable energy industry, and we believe that their depth of experience is instrumental to our continued success. The loss of any one or more members of our senior management team, for any reason, including resignation or retirement, could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Competition for qualified highly skilled personnel can be strong, and we cannot assure you that we will be successful in attracting or retaining such personnel now or in the future. Any inability to recruit, develop and retain qualified employees may result in high employee turnover and may force us to pay significantly higher wages, which may harm our profitability. Additionally, we do not carry key personnel insurance for any of our management executives, and the loss of any key employee or our inability to recruit, develop and retain these individuals as needed, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Our ability to pay regular dividends on our common stock is subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors.

 

Our common stock will have no contractual or other legal right to dividends. The payment of future dividends on our common stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on, among other things, our earnings, financial condition, capital requirements, level of indebtedness, statutory and contractual restrictions applying to the payment of dividends and other considerations that our Board of Directors deems relevant. Accordingly, we may not make, or may have to reduce or eliminate, the payment of dividends on our common stock, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY.

We have processes in place for identifying, assessing and managing material risks associated with cybersecurity threats. For a discussion of how risks from cybersecurity threats affect our business, please see our Risk Factors discussion under the heading, “Cybersecurity and Information Technology Risks” in this Form 10-K.

Risk Management and Strategy

Enterprise risk management is the responsibility of our executive management team consisting of our chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief legal officer and our vice presidents of operations, business development and environmental, health and safety. Our executive management team meets on a weekly basis and discusses cybersecurity on an ad hoc basis when it is relevant. Our director of Information Technology, who reports directly to our chief executive officer, and our director of Internal Audit are primarily responsible for management of cybersecurity risk. Our director of Information Technology is an active ISC2 accredited member with 14 years of information technology experience, namely in developing solutions focused on private and hybrid cloud computing systems for small scale organizations. In accordance with our overall enterprise risk management process, our executive management team supervises our director of Information Technology and director of Internal Audit to assess, identify and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats. As part of this process, we rely significantly on third-party providers to assist us with our cybersecurity risk management and strategy. These providers supply ongoing services including consulting services, access to a virtual CISO, threat monitoring and detection, threat response and mitigation strategies, updates on emerging trends and developments and policy and procedure guidance. Other service providers offer targeted assistance such as security and forensic expertise on an as needed basis. We also maintain cybersecurity insurance.

With respect to our employees, we run a multi-faceted security awareness program that includes regular, mandatory trainings for our personnel on data protection and malware detection, policy and process awareness, periodic phishing simulations and other kinds of preparedness testing.

As part of our Sarbanes-Oxley controls, our Internal Audit department tests our IT policies including those pertaining to passwords, backup and recovery, user access, change control and hardware and software maintenance. These audits assess key information security and cybersecurity risks in the environment that may affect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of financial reporting systems and data. Additionally, key employees complete a survey containing questions about cybersecurity in connection with the quarterly Sarbanes-Oxley certification process. If any control deficiencies that represent material cybersecurity risks are identified in connection with these audits, those would be reported to the Audit Committee and Board of Directors. We also obtain SOC 2 certifications from certain of our third-party service providers.

As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we have not implemented formal processes to oversee and identify risks from cybersecurity threats associated with our use of third parties. We are working toward the implementation of a third-party risk management program. We believe that this program will better enable us to identify and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats related to our third-party service providers.

As of December 31, 2023, we have not identified any risks from cybersecurity threats (including any previous cybersecurity incidents) that have materially affected us, our business strategy, our results of operations or our financial condition. For a discussion of risks from cybersecurity threats that could be reasonably likely to materially affect us, please see our Risk Factors discussion under the heading, “Cybersecurity and Information Technology Risks” in this Form 10-K.

Governance

The Audit Committee is tasked with overseeing our risks related to cybersecurity, including reviewing the state of our cybersecurity, emerging cybersecurity developments and threats, and our strategy to mitigate cybersecurity risks. From time to time, members of our executive management team and our directors of Information Technology and Internal Audit provide updates to the Audit Committee and the Board of Directors regarding cybersecurity incidents and cybersecurity planning.

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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

We own approximately 174 acres in Turkey, NC for which we are using to develop Montauk Ag Renewables. Montauk Ag Renewables is reported in our Renewable Electricity Generation segment.

Our principal executive office is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We lease an approximate 24,000 square foot office space at this site for approximately $43,000 per month pursuant to a lease which expires on April 30, 2033.

We also lease an 8,400 square foot regional office and warehouse to service our sites in Houston, Texas, pursuant to a lease which expires on December 31, 2026, for approximately $5,000 per month. We currently own and operate 15 projects, 12 of which are RNG projects and three of which are Renewable Electricity projects. See “Item 1. Business—Our Current Operating Portfolio” for further descriptions of our projects, which information is incorporated into this item by reference.

From time to time we and our subsidiaries may be parties to legal proceedings arising in the normal course of our business. We and our subsidiaries are currently not a party, nor is our property subject, to any material pending legal proceedings. None of our directors, officers, affiliates, or any owner of record or beneficial owner of more than 5% of our common stock, is involved in a material proceeding adverse to us or our subsidiaries or has a material interest adverse to us or our subsidiaries.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not Applicable.

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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.

Market Information

The Company’s common stock has traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the ticker symbol of “MNTK” and on the JSE under the ticker symbol of “MKR” since January 22, 2021. Prior to that time, there was no established public trading market for the Company’s common stock.

Holders of Montauk Common Stock

As of March 8, 2024, there were 12 holders of record of 143,623,805 shares of Montauk common stock outstanding as of such date. The number of holders of record of Montauk common stock does not reflect the number of beneficial holders whose shares are held by depositaries, brokers or other nominees.

Performance Graph

The following stock performance graph compares our total stock return with the total return for (a) NASDAQ Composite Index and (b) an industry peer group. Our 2023 peer group, which is comprised of companies that we believe have comparable characteristics and are in the same industry or line-of-business, consists of Ameresco, Inc., Aemetis, Inc., Anaergia, Inc., Clean Energy Fuels Corp., Gevo, Inc., and Opal Fuels, Inc. With Opal Fuels, Inc. having sufficient trading activity to be included in our 2023 peer group, we refined our 2023 peer group to companies in the same industry or line-of-business. Our 2022 peer group consisted of Aemetis Inc., Clean Energy Fuels Corp., and Gevo Inc. Our eleven month 2021 peer group also included Archaea Energy, Inc., and Renewable Energy Group Inc. but these entities were acquired and ceased trading during 2022 and, as such, a separate line showing the total returns for this group is not possible in the below performance graph through December 31, 2022. The graph assumes that on January 22, 2021, the date our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market, $100 was invested in our common stock and in each index based on the closing market price on that day and that all dividends were reinvested. The returns shown are based on historical events and are not intended to suggest future performance.

The following performance graph and related information is being furnished and shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that section, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it into reference into such filing.

 

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https://cdn.kscope.io/d2217836b83c00f07d2c12dd209f7957-img198673427_3.jpg 

 

1/22/21

 

3/21

 

6/21

 

9/21

 

12/21

 

3/22

 

6/22

 

Montauk Renewables, Inc.

 

100.00

 

 

116.49

 

 

73.87

 

 

108.29

 

 

98.84

 

 

108.00

 

 

96.91

 

NASDAQ Composite

 

100.00

 

 

102.95

 

 

112.92

 

 

112.66

 

 

122.18

 

 

111.25

 

 

86.46

 

2022 Peer Group

 

100.00

 

 

121.76

 

 

85.76

 

 

78.41

 

 

54.99

 

 

65.34

 

 

34.06

 

2023 Peer Group

 

100.00

 

 

105.94

 

 

94.35

 

 

87.29

 

 

88.23

 

 

89.02

 

 

50.82

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9/22

 

12/22

 

3/23

 

6/23

 

9/23

 

12/23

 

 

 

Montauk Renewables, Inc.

 

168.18

 

 

106.36

 

 

75.89

 

 

71.75

 

 

87.85

 

 

85.92

 

 

 

NASDAQ Composite

 

83.08

 

 

82.43

 

 

96.48

 

 

109.07

 

 

104.77

 

 

119.22

 

 

 

2022 Peer Group

 

38.35

 

 

34.48

 

 

27.97

 

 

34.11

 

 

25.33

 

 

26.02

 

 

 

2023 Peer Group

 

64.52

 

 

55.01

 

 

47.23

 

 

49.77

 

 

42.25

 

 

35.22

 

 

 

 

 

Dividend Policy

The Company did not pay any dividends in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 and currently intends to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the operations, growth and development of its business. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to compliance with contractual restrictions and covenants in the agreements governing our current and future indebtedness and the DGCL. Any such determination will also depend upon our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and availability, and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

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Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

The information required by Item 5 of Form 10-K regarding equity compensation plans is incorporated herein by reference to Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report.

Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities

None.

Use of Proceeds from Sale of Registered Securities

On January 21, 2021, our Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-251312) (the “Registration Statement”), was declared effective by the SEC in connection with the IPO. The underwriter for the IPO was Roth Capital Partners. A total of 3,399,515 shares of our common stock were sold pursuant to the Registration Statement, which was comprised of (1) 2,702,500 shares of new common stock issued by the Company and (2) 697,015 shares of the Company’s common stock held by MNK. The 3,399,515 shares were sold at an offering price of $8.50 per share and resulting in net proceeds to the Company of approximately $15.0 million, after deducting the underwriting discount of approximately $1.6 million and offering expenses payable by the Company of approximately $6.2 million.

The IPO closed on January 26, 2021. No payments for such expenses were made directly or indirectly to (i) any of our officers or directors or their associates, (ii) any persons owning 10% or more of any class of our equity securities or (iii) any of our affiliates.

From the closing of the IPO through December 31, 2023, approximately $15.0 million of the net proceeds from the IPO have been used by Montauk for the following: the Montauk Ag Asset Acquisition in May 2021, the purchase of the real-estate and property in October 2021 related to Montauk Ag, and subsequent development activities related to Montauk Ag Renewables. An immaterial amount has been used relating to other possible acquisitions and projects. As of December 31, 2023, all net proceeds were used by the Company.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

ITEM 6. RESERVED

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and the related notes to those statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The historical consolidated financial data discussed below reflects the historical results of operations and financial position of Montauk USA, prior to the Equity Exchange on January 4, 2021. Following the Equity Exchange on January 4, 2021, the consolidated financial statements of Montauk USA became our historical financial statements for the periods prior to the Equity Exchange.

In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those discussed under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Item 1A.–Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report.

This section generally discusses our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022. For discussion and analysis of our results for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 16, 2023.

Overview

Montauk is a renewable energy company specializing in the recovery and processing of biogas from landfills and other non-fossil fuel sources for beneficial use as a replacement to fossil fuels. We develop, own, and operate RNG projects, using proven technologies that supply RNG into the transportation industry and use RNG to produce Renewable Electricity. We are one of the largest U.S. producers of RNG, having participated in the industry for over 30 years. We established our operating portfolio of 12 RNG and three Renewable Electricity projects through self-development, partnerships, and acquisitions that span six states.

Biogas is produced by microbes as they break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen (during a process called anaerobic digestion). Our two current sources of commercial scale biogas are LFG and ADG, which is produced inside an airtight tank used to breakdown organic matter, such as livestock waste. We typically secure our biogas feedstock through long-term fuel supply agreements and property lease agreements with biogas site hosts. Once we secure long-term fuel supply rights, we design, build, own, and operate facilities that convert the biogas into RNG or use the processed biogas to produce Renewable Electricity. We sell the RNG and Renewable Electricity through a variety of short-, medium-, and long-term agreements. Because we are capturing waste methane and making use of a renewable source of energy, our RNG and Renewable Electricity generate valuable Environmental Attributes, which we are able to monetize under federal and state initiatives.

Recent Developments

Capital Development Summary

The following summarizes our ongoing development growth plans expected capacity contribution, anticipated commencement of operations, and capital expenditure estimate, respectively, excluding Montauk Ag Renewables Development project:

 

Development Opportunity

Estimated Capacity Contribution

(MMBtu/day)

Anticipated Commencement Date

Estimated Capital Expenditure

Pico Digestion Capacity Increase

300

2024 second quarter

Up to $20,000

Second Apex RNG Facility

2,100

2024 fourth quarter

$25,000-$35,000

Blue Granite RNG Facility

900

2026

$25,000-$35,000

Bowerman RNG Facility

3,600

2026

$85,000-$95,000

European Energy Facility

N/A

2027

Up to $15,000/facility

 

RINs Generated but Unsold

Our profitability is highly dependent on the market price of Environmental Attributes, including the market price for RINs. As we self-market a significant portion of our RINs, a decision not to commit to transfer available RINs during a period will impact our revenue and operating profit. We determined not to transfer a significant amount of D3 RINs generated and available for transfer during the first quarter of 2024. As a result, we have approximately 2,887 RINs in inventory from 2023 gas production and have approximately 7,250 RINs in inventory from 2024 gas production as of the filing of this Report. We have not entered into commitments to transfer these RINs in inventory nor have we entered into agreements to transfer future RINs generated from forecasted future production. The average D3 RIN index price for the fourth quarter of 2023 and January 2024 and through the end of February 2024 was approximately $3.30 and $3.06, respectively.

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Carbon Dioxide Beneficial Use Opportunity

In February 2024, we signed a contract for the delivery of 140 thousand tons per year of biogenic carbon dioxide (“CO2”) from our four Texas facilities. We intend to capture, clean and liquefy CO2 at select Texas facilities, at which point it will be transported to EE North America (“EENA”), a Texas-based e-methanol facility. The delivery term is expected to last at least 15 years with first delivery expected to begin in 2027. With targeting a commissioning start in 2027, we expect the capital investment to be approximately $15,000 per facility with anticipating spend beginning second half of 2024.

REG Facility Sale

In February 2024, we reached an agreement with the site host to sell the gas rights ahead of the fuel supply expiration of one of our existing REG operating facilities. We received proceeds of $1,000 and no longer have obligations to decommission or remove any machinery or equipment at the site. The proceeds received were in excess of the carrying value of the site. The PPA at this site expires during 2024 at which time we estimated that the revenues from this site would significantly decrease adversely impacting this sites future cash flows from operations. The effective date of the sale is October 1, 2024. In connection with the sale, we secured fuel supply agreement amendments to extend the terms of our existing RNG operating facilities, Atascocita and Coastal Plains.

Montauk Ag Asset Acquisition

In 2021, through a wholly-owned subsidiary Montauk Ag Renewables, we completed an asset purchase related to developing technology to recover residual natural resources from the waste streams of modern agriculture and to refine and recycle such waste products through proprietary and other processes in order to produce high quality renewable natural gas and recapture nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrient organic fertilizer alternatives (the “Montauk Ag Renewables Acquisition”).

While these project developments continue, we continue to engage with regulatory agencies in North Carolina related to the resulting power generation derived from swine waste to confirm its eligibility for Renewable Energy Credits under North Carolina’s Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards in anticipation of commercial production. The Turkey location was approved to participate in the Piedmont Natural Gas Renewable Gas Pilot Program which is a step towards obtaining the New Renewable Energy Facility (“NREF”) designation under the North Carolina Utilities Commission. In January 2024, we received notification from the North Carolina Utilities Commission that the Turkey, NC location was approved for an NREF and Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity. In March 2024, we submitted an amendment to our NREF application for which we expect a decision on the NREF designation during 2024. Obtaining this designation could have an impact on the timing of utility infrastructure at the location. We signed a receipt interconnection agreement with Piedmont Natural Gas for the Turkey, NC location. This agreement is structured to coincide with the development timeline at the Turkey, NC location.

In connection with the July 2023 REC agreement with Duke Energy (“Duke”), our Board of Directors approved funding for the first phase of the North Carolina development project in September 2023. Once construction has been completed on the first phase and the facility has been fully commissioned, the project will provide sufficient capacity to satisfy the Duke REC agreement through the deployment of up to eight operational processing lines at the Turkey Creek facility. Including the original equipment acquired in the Montauk Ag Renewables Acquisition, the Turkey, NC asset acquisition, and the relocation of the Magnolia, NC site reactor to Turkey, NC, we currently expect the first phase capital investment to range between $140,000 and $160,000.

We continue to expect to have the first of the eight processing lines operational in the second quarter of 2024 and, we are currently planning for a rolling commissioning schedule for the remaining processing lines beginning in the second half of 2024 through the second half of 2025. We continue to expect to begin generating revenues in 2025 and expect to have sufficient capacity to satisfy the Duke REC agreement upon final commissioning during the second half of 2025. At full first phase capacity, we anticipate the ability to process feedstock from over 120 thousand hog spaces per day, which equates to over 200 tons of daily waste collection. We currently estimate the first phase of the project will annually produce approximately 45 to 50 thousand MWh equivalents through the combination of 190 to 200 thousand MMBtu and 25 to 30 thousand MWh. We also estimate that at full processing capabilities, the first phase of the project will additionally produce annually 17 to 20 thousand tons of organic fertilizer alternatives.

We continue to work with our engineer of record through the optimization of improvements to the now patented reactor technology. However, we have not completed our improvements, and we have not reached commercial operations at the Turkey, NC location. The improvements to the reactor technology are intended to be deployed at the Turkey, NC location. In 2023, we completed the relocation of the reactor in Magnolia, NC to the Turkey, NC location to centralize processing at one location. And as part of the centralization and in connection with the optimization of the reactor, we assessed various assets of the Magnolia, NC reactor as no longer being applicable to the improved reactor process. As a result, we recorded an impairment charge of approximately $1,393 in 2022 related to assets originally acquired in the May 2021 Montauk Ag Renewables Acquisition we determined were no longer usable.

We continue to develop the opportunities with Montauk Ag Renewables and can give no assurances that our plans related to this acquisition will meet our expectations. Utility interconnection, both inbound to and outbound from our centralized Turkey, NC processing facility is dependent on factors outside of our control. Our current construction timeline and costs are subject to delays or costs increases, respectively. We continue to design and plan for the development of the Turkey, NC facility to be used for

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commercial production. We expect the Magnolia, NC location to be used for various feedstock processing needs. Based on our current development timeline expectations, we expect to commence significant revenue generating activities in 2025. We intend to contract with additional farms to secure feedstock sources for future production processes.

Pico Digestion Capacity Increase

Related to our Pico feedstock amendment, which increased the amount of feedstock supplied to the facility for processing over a one to four-year period (the “Pico Feedstock Amendment”), the dairy began delivering the first and second increases in feedstock in 2022 and we made three payments to the dairy as required in the Pico Feedstock Agreement. The improved efficiencies of our existing digestion process and the water management improvements have enabled us to process the increased feedstock volumes which we currently expect to increase by five to ten percent once all increased feedstock deliveries have been received from the dairy. Our dairy host informed us that they expect to deliver the final increase in feedstock volumes in 2025, at which point we will make the final contractual payment to the dairy.

In 2023, CARB finalized the engineering review of the Pico facility's provisional CI application and released it for public comment. The public comment period ended March 14, 2023 and we did not receive any significant comments. CARB certified our Tier 2 application and the certified CI value was used beginning in the fourth quarter of 2022 to report and generate LCFS credits. We released the remaining gas from storage in the second quarter of 2023.

We completed the design of the digestion capacity project in 2022 and continue to incur capital expenditures related to the final commissioning phase of the project. During 2023, we successfully commissioned additional digestion capacity and our new reception pit, both of which are currently operational. We have begun utilizing the increased reception pit capacity and have been working to increase feedstock gas availability through the additional digestion capacity. We continue to commission the last expansion of our digestion capacity increase during the second quarter of 2024 and currently expect to ramp up production into the third quarter of 2024.

Second Apex RNG Facility

In 2022, we announced the planned construction of a second RNG processing facility at the Apex landfill. Currently, the landfill host is providing biogas feedstock in excess of our existing processing capacity, therefore triggering the addition of a second facility based on our existing fuel supply agreement. As the landfill host continues to increase waste intake, we believe that the additional 2,100 MMBtu per day of production capacity will allow us to process the currently forecasted increase in biogas feedstock volumes from this increase in waste intake. While the landfill host continues to increase waste intake, we expect there could be a period where we have excess available capacity after the second facility is commissioned. We currently expect commercial operations in the fourth quarter of 2024. We continue to incur capital expenditures for this project.

Bowerman RNG Project

In 2023, we announced a planned development of a renewable natural gas landfill project in Irvine, CA at the Frank R. Bowerman Landfill. The project is anticipated to process the large and growing volumes of biogas in excess of the existing capacity of the REG facility. With target commissioning in 2026, we continue to expect the capital investment to range between $85,000 - $95,000, which is anticipated to have production nameplate capacity of approximately 3,600 MMBtu per day, assuming currently forecasted biogas feedstock volumes that are projected to be available from the host landfill at the time of commissioning.

Blue Granite RNG Project

In 2023, we announced the planned entrance into South Carolina with the development of a new landfill gas-to-RNG facility. The planned project is expected to contribute approximately 900 MMBtu per day of production capacity upon commissioning. We continue to design and plan for the development and location of the facility as we continue to incur capital expenditures. We continue to review various alternatives related to interconnection opportunities as part of our considerations for offtake options with the understanding those alternatives may differ from initial development project assumptions. We expect the utility interconnection initially included in our development assumptions to accept the production from this facility, but will require other upgrades not impacting our interconnection. However, these upgrades have delayed our expectation of commissioning of the facility into 2026.

Raeger Capital Improvement

In 2022, our Board of Directors approved a capital improvement project to make upgrades to our Raeger facility to production. Construction on this capital project commenced in 2022 and the improvements became commercially operational during the second half of 2023.

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Key Trends

Market Trends Affecting the Renewable Fuel Market

We believe rising demand for RNG is attributable to a variety of factors, including growing public support for renewable energy, U.S. governmental actions to increase energy independence, environmental concerns increasing demand for natural gas-powered vehicles, job creation, and increasing investment in the renewable energy sector.

Key drivers for the long-term growth of RNG include the following factors:

Regulatory or policy initiatives, including the federal RFS program and state-level low-carbon fuel programs in states such as California and Oregon, that drive demand for RNG and its derivative Environmental Attributes (as further described below).
Efficiency, mobility and capital cost flexibility in RNG operations enable it to compete successfully in multiple markets. Our operating model is nimble, as we commonly use modular equipment; our RNG processing equipment is more efficient than its fossil-fuel equivalents.
Demand for compressed natural gas (“CNG”) from natural gas-fueled vehicles. The RNG we create is pipeline-quality and can be used for transportation fuel when converted to CNG. CNG is commonly used by medium-duty fleets that are close to fueling stations, such as city fleets, local delivery trucks and waste haulers.
Regulatory requirements, market pressure and public relations challenges increase the time, cost and difficulty of permitting new fossil fuel-fired facilities.

Factors Affecting Our Future Operating Results:

Conversion of Electricity Projects to RNG Projects:

We periodically evaluate opportunities to convert existing facilities from Renewable Electricity to RNG production. These opportunities tend to be most attractive for any merchant electricity facilities given the favorable economics for the sale of RNG plus RINs relative to the sale of market rate electricity plus RECs. This strategy has been an increasingly attractive avenue for growth since 2014 when RNG from landfills became eligible for D3 RINs. However, during the conversion of a project, there is a gap in production while the electricity project is offline until it commences operation as an RNG facility, which can adversely affect us. This timing effect may adversely affect our operating results as a result of our potential conversion of Renewable Electricity projects. Upon completion of a conversion, we expect that the increase in revenue upon commencement of RNG production will more than offset the loss of revenue from Renewable Electricity production. Historically, we have taken advantage of these opportunities on a gradual basis at our merchant electricity facilities, such as Atascocita and Coastal Plains.

Acquisition and Development Pipeline

The timing and extent of our development pipeline affects our operating results due to:

Impact of Higher Selling, General and Administrative Expenses Prior to the Commencement of a Project’s Operation: We incur significant expenses in the development of new RNG projects. Further, the receipt of RINs is delayed, and typically does not commence for a period of four to six months after the commencement of injecting RNG into a pipeline, pending final registration approval of the project by the EPA and then the subsequent completion of a third-party quality assurance plan certification. During such time, the RNG is either physically or theoretically stored and later withdrawn from storage to allow for the generation of RINs.
Shifts in Revenue Composition for Projects from New Fuel Sources: As we expand into livestock farm projects, our revenue composition from Environmental Attributes will change. We believe that livestock farms offer us a lucrative opportunity, as the value of LCFS credits for dairy farm projects, for example, are a multiple of those realized from landfill projects due to the significantly more attractive CI score of livestock farms.
Incurrence of Expenses Associated with Pursuing Prospective Projects That Do Not Come to Fruition: We incur expenses to pursue prospective projects with the goal of a site host accepting our proposal or being awarded a project in a competitive bidding process. Historically, we have evaluated opportunities which we decided not to pursue further due to the prospective project not meeting our internal investment thresholds or a lack of success in a competitive bidding process. To the extent we seek to pursue a greater number of projects or bidding for projects becomes more competitive, our expenses may increase.

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Regulatory, Environmental and Social Trends

Regulatory, environmental and social factors are key drivers that incentivize the development of RNG and Renewable Electricity projects and influence the economics of these projects. We are subject to the possibility of legislative and regulatory changes to certain incentives, such as RINs, RECs and GHG initiatives. On July 12, 2023, the EPA issued final rules in the Federal Register for the RFS volume requirements for 2023-2025. Final volumes for cellulosic biofuel were set at 838, 1,090 and 1,376 million RINs for the three years 2023, 2024 and 2025, respectively. The EPA did not finalize the eRIN program in this ruling, however, it indicated that it will continue to work on potential paths forward for the eRIN program. However, the EPA did not set a new date for a revised eRIN program. The cellulosic biofuel volumes in the final rule for 2024 and 2025 are lower than the proposed volume as they do not include cellulosic biofuel from eRINs. The final rule also included significant changes to the existing RFS program, referred to as biogas regulatory reform, that will require the RNG industry to modify how all RINs are generated. New RFS participating facilities that register July 1, 2024, or after will have to meet the biogas regulatory reform provisions beginning July 1, 2024. Existing RFS participating facilities which registered prior to July 1, 2024, will have until January 1, 2025, to come into compliance with biogas regulatory reforms. For existing registrants, registration updates must be submitted by October 1, 2024. On January 1, 2025, all RFS participants must comply with biogas regulatory reform provisions. The EPA finalized a limitation that biogas from one facility has a single use under the RFS as proposed (i.e., biointermediate, RNG or CNG/LNG via biogas closed distribution system). The EPA clarified that this does not preclude non-RFS uses at same facility.

In December 2023, CARB released the formal proposal for new LCFS rules. The proposed rules will increase the stringency of CI reduction targets from 20% to 30% in 2030 and create a 2045 target of 90%. This reduction would have the potential impact of reducing the number of net credits in the program. However, the industry may see pricing volatility including potential increase to LCFS credit prices. Also in the proposed rules is a phase out of avoided methane crediting for dairy and swine manure pathways by 2040 for CNG usage and through 2045 for RNG used to produce hydrogen. The RNG deliverability/book and claim provisions for out-of-region projects will be eliminated for all projects that break ground after 2030. These projects will be required to demonstrate physical deliverability requirements beginning in 2041.

Changes to the LCFS program require annual verification of the CI score assigned to a project. Annual verification could significantly affect the profitability of a project, particularly in the case of a livestock farm project.

Factors Affecting Revenue

Our total operating revenues include renewable energy and related sales of Environmental Attributes. Renewable energy sales primarily consist of the sale of biogas, including LFG and ADG, which is either sold or converted to Renewable Electricity. Environmental Attributes are generated and monetized from the renewable energy.

We report revenues from two operating segments: Renewable Natural Gas and Renewable Electricity Generation. Corporate relates to additional discrete financial information for the corporate function; primarily used as a shared service center for maintaining functions such as executive, accounting, treasury, legal, human resources, tax, environmental, engineering, and other operations functions not otherwise allocated to a segment. As such, the corporate entity is not determined to be an operating segment but is discretely disclosed for purposes of reconciliation to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

Renewable Natural Gas Revenues: We record revenues from the production and sale of RNG and the generation and sale of the Environmental Attributes derived from RNG, such as RINs and LCFS credits. Our RNG revenues from Environmental Attributes are recorded net of a portion of Environmental Attributes shared with off-take counterparties as consideration for such counterparties using the RNG as a transportation fuel. We have certain pathway provider sharing arrangements expiring throughout 2024. If we are unable to renew these arrangements based on our historical counterparty share percentages, our ability to monetize RINs from RNG may be impacted. We monetize a portion of our RNG production under fixed-price agreements which provide floor prices in excess of commodity indices.
Renewable Electricity Generation Revenues: We record revenues from the production and sale of Renewable Electricity and the generation and sale of the Environmental Attributes, such as RECs, derived from Renewable Electricity. All of our Renewable Electricity production is monetized under fixed-price PPAs from our existing operating projects.
Corporate Revenues: Corporate reports realized and unrealized gains or losses under our gas hedge programs. Corporate also relates to additional discrete financial information for the corporate function; primarily used as a shared service center for maintaining functions such as executive, accounting, treasury, legal, human resources, tax, environmental, engineering and other operations functions not otherwise allocated to a segment.

Our operating revenues are priced based on published index prices which can be influenced by factors outside our control, such as market impacts on commodity pricing and regulatory developments. Strategic decisions to not monetize RINs available to be transferred will have an impact on our operating revenues and operating profit. As we self-market a significant portion of our RINs and as the RFS is based on annual compliance, any strategic decision to not monetize available RINs in a quarter could impact the timing of operating revenues recognized during a fiscal year. With our royalty payments structured as a percentage of revenue, royalty

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payments fluctuate with changes in revenues. Due to these factors, we place a primary focus on managing production volumes and operating and maintenance expenses as these factors are more controllable by us.

RNG Production

Our RNG production levels are subject to fluctuations based on numerous factors, including:

Disruptions to Production: Disruptions to waste placement operations at our active landfill sites, severe weather events, or failure or degradation of our or a landfill operator’s equipment or interconnection or transmission problems could result in a reduction of our RNG production. We strive to proactively address any issues that may arise through preventative maintenance, process improvement and flexible redeployment of equipment to maximize production and useful life.

Many of our operating locations are in areas that experienced lower than historical rainfall, higher than average temperatures, or both, during the second half of 2023. This had a negative impact on our production and ability to generate and sell RINs.
Though we collaborate with the landfill host at our Rumpke facility on our gas collection efforts, in addition to drought weather anomalies, other wellfield extraction environmental factors have impacted gas extraction at the site. While the site continues to expand their waste intake and we continue to expand wellfield collection, our volumes could be impacted throughout 2024. Mitigation efforts related to wellfield environmental factors will continue into 2024.
The landfill host at our McCarty facility recently changed its wellfield collection system which has contributed to elevated nitrogen in the feedstock received by our facility. Additionally, the landfill host modified the wellfield bifurcation approach which has impacted the quantity of feedstock received at the facility. We are working with the landfill host but have currently experienced lower volumes of feedstock available to be processed at the McCarty facility.
Our processing of increased Pico feedstock during first half of 2024 may be impacted while we expand the receiving capacity associated with the Pico digestion capacity increase.
Quality of Biogas: We are reliant upon the quality and availability of biogas from our site partners. The quality of the waste at our landfill project sites is subject to change based on the volume and type of waste accepted. Variations in the quality of the biogas could affect our RNG production levels. At three of our projects, we operate the wellfield collection system, which allows greater control over the quality and consistency of the collected biogas. At two of our projects, we have operating and management agreements by which we earn revenue for managing the wellfield collection systems. Additionally, our dairy farm project benefits from the consistency of feedstock and controlled environment of collection of waste to improve biogas quality.
RNG Production from Our Growth Projects: We anticipate increased production at certain of our existing projects as open landfills continue to take in additional waste and the amount of gas available for collection increases. Delays in commencement of production or extended commissioning issues at a new project or a conversion project would delay any realization of production from that project.

Pricing

Our Renewable Natural Gas and Renewable Electricity Generation segments’ revenues are primarily driven by the prices under our off-take agreements and PPAs and the amount of RNG and Renewable Electricity that we produce. We sell the RNG produced from our projects under a variety of short-term and medium-term agreements to counterparties, with contract terms varying from three years to five years. Our contracts with counterparties are typically structured to be based on varying natural gas price indices for the RNG produced. All of the Renewable Electricity produced at our biogas-to-electricity projects is sold under long-term contracts to creditworthy counterparties, typically under a fixed price arrangement with escalators.

The pricing of Environmental Attributes, which accounts for a substantial portion of our revenues, is subject to volatility based on a variety of factors, including regulatory and administrative actions and commodity pricing.

During the first quarter of 2023, our Pico dairy farm project was awarded a more attractive CI by CARB, thereby generating LCFS credits at a multiple of those generated by our landfill projects.

The sale of RINs, which is subject to market price fluctuations, accounts for a substantial portion of our revenues. We manage against the risk of these fluctuations through forward sales of RINs, although currently we only sell RINs in the calendar year they are generated. We have not entered into commitments to transfer significant RINs generated from 2024 production. Realized prices for Environmental Attributes monetized in a year may not correspond directly to index prices due to the forward selling of commitments.

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Factors Affecting Operating Expenses

Our operating expenses include royalties, transportation, gathering and production fuel expenses, project operating and maintenance expenses, general and administrative expenses, depreciation and amortization, net loss (gain) on sale of assets, impairment loss and transaction costs.

Project Operating and Maintenance Expenses: Operating and maintenance expenses primarily consist of expenses related to the collection and processing of biogas, including biogas collection system operating and maintenance expenses, biogas processing, operating and maintenance expenses, and related labor and overhead expenses. At the project level, this includes all labor and benefit costs, ongoing corrective and proactive maintenance, project level utility charges, rent, health and safety, employee communication, and other general project level expenses. Unanticipated feedstock processing or gas conditioning equipment failures occurring outside our planned preventative maintenance program can increase project operating and maintenance expenses and reduce production volumes.
Royalties, Transportation, Gathering and Production Fuel Expenses: Royalties represent payments made to our facility hosts, typically structured as a percentage of revenue. Transportation and gathering expenses include capacity and metering expenses representing the costs of delivering our RNG and Renewable Electricity production to our customers. These expenses include payments to pipeline operators and other agencies that allow for the transmission of our gas and electricity commodities to end users. Production fuel expenses generally represent alternative royalty payments based on quantity usage of biogas feedstock.
General and Administrative Expenses: General and administrative expenses primarily consist of corporate expenses and unallocated support functions for our operating facilities, including personnel costs for executive, finance, accounting, investor relations, legal, human resources, operations, engineering, environmental registration and reporting, health and safety, IT and other administrative personnel and professional fees and general corporate expenses. From time to time, we may be parties to legal proceedings arising in the normal course of business which could increase our legal expenses. We expect increased general and administrative expenses associated with our ongoing development of Montauk Ag Renewables in 2024. We also expect increased general and administrative expenses associated with share-based compensation related to the board of directors approval of grants of stock options to the executives of the Company in April 2023. The Company accounts for stock-based compensation related to grants made through its equity and incentive compensation plan under FASB ASC 718. For more information, see Note 15 to our audited consolidated financial statements.
Depreciation and Amortization: Expenses related to the recognition of the useful lives of our intangible and fixed assets. We spend significant capital to build and own our facilities. In addition to development capital, we annually reinvest to maintain these facilities.
Impairment Loss: Expenses related to reductions in the carrying value(s) of fixed and/or intangible assets based on periodic evaluations whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable.
Transaction Costs: Transaction costs primarily consist of expenses incurred for due diligence and other activities related to potential acquisitions and other strategic transactions.

Key Operating Metrics

Total operating revenues reflect both sales of renewable energy and sales of related Environmental Attributes. As a result, our revenues are primarily affected by unit production of RNG and Renewable Electricity, production of Environmental Attributes, and the prices at which we monetize such production. Set forth below is an overview of these key metrics:

Production Volumes: We review performance by site based on unit of production calculations for RNG and Renewable Electricity, measured in terms of MMBtu and MWh, respectively. While unit of production measurements can be influenced by schedule facility maintenance schedules, the metric is used to measure the efficiency of operations and the impact of optimization improvement initiatives. We monetize a majority of our RNG commodity production under variable-price agreements, based on indices. A portion of our Renewable Natural Gas segment commodity production is monetized under fixed-priced contracts. Our Renewable Electricity Generation segment commodity production is primarily monetized under fixed-priced PPAs.
Production of Environmental Attributes: We monetize Environmental Attributes derived from our production of RNG and Renewable Electricity. We carry-over a portion of the RINs generated from RNG production to the following year and monetize the carried over RINs in such following calendar year. A majority of our Renewable Natural Gas segment Environmental Attributes are self-monetized, though a portion are generated and monetized by third parties under counterparty sharing agreements. A majority of our Renewable Electricity Generation segment Environmental Attributes are monetized as a component of our fixed-price PPAs.
Average realized price per unit of production: Our profitability is highly dependent on the commodity prices for natural gas and electricity, and the Environmental Attribute prices for RINs, LCFS credits, and RECs. Realized prices for

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Environmental Attributes monetized in a year may not correspond directly with that year’s production as attributes may be carried over and subsequently monetized. We may elect to not commit to transfer all available RINs in a given period which could impact our revenue and operating profit. Realized prices for Environmental Attributes monetized in a year may not correspond directly to index prices due to the forward selling of commitments.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

The following table summarizes the key operating metrics described above, which metrics we use to measure performance.

 

 

 

For the year ended
December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

Change

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

Change

 

 

%

 

(in thousands, unless otherwise indicated)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renewable Natural Gas Total Revenues

 

$

156,455

 

 

$

196,218

 

 

$

(39,763

)

 

 

(20.3

%)

Renewable Electricity Generation Total Revenues

 

$

18,449

 

 

$

17,170

 

 

$

1,279

 

 

 

7.4

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RNG Metrics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CY RNG production volumes (MMBtu)

 

 

5,499

 

 

 

5,522

 

 

 

(23

)

 

 

(0.4

%)

Less: Current period RNG volumes under fixed/floor-
   price contracts

 

 

(1,287

)

 

 

(1,278

)

 

 

(9

)

 

 

0.7

%

Plus: Prior period RNG volumes dispensed in current
   period

 

 

368

 

 

 

372

 

 

 

(4

)

 

 

(1.1

%)

Less: Current period RNG production volumes not
   dispensed

 

 

(358

)

 

 

(378

)

 

 

20

 

 

 

(5.3

%)

Total RNG volumes available for RIN generation (1)

 

 

4,222

 

 

 

4,238

 

 

 

(16

)

 

 

(0.4

%)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RIN Metrics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current RIN generation ( x 11.727) (2)

 

 

49,508

 

 

 

49,697

 

 

 

(189

)

 

 

(0.4

%)

Less: Counterparty share (RINs)

 

 

(5,203

)

 

 

(5,275

)

 

 

72

 

 

 

(1.4

%)